120 Chemical Abstracts

A Novel Method for Waste Water Management


 Abstract:

With the increasing cost of chemical regeneration and waste neutralization Companies are constantly working to re-evaluate their water management systems, as well as the liabilities of storing and handling hazardous chemicals and are looking at alternatives to on-site regenerable ion exchange for producing high-purity water at reasonable operating costs with higher efficiencies. One alternative to the traditional water treatment methods is continuous electrodeionization (CEDI), a technology that eliminates ionic contaminants and TOC or partially polar organic compounds .It is not only energy efficient but also pollution free with no chemical utilization.

EDI theory and practice have been advanced by a large number of researchers throughout the world; it was first described in a publication by scientists at Argonne Labs in January 1955 as a method for removal of trace radioactive materials from water (Walters, et. al.). EDI devices and systems were first fully commercialized in early 1987 .Since then, the theory and practice of EDI has advanced worldwide, commercial EDI devices are now manufactured by a number of companies

Its Applications include creating process water for the biotechnology, food and beverage industries, providing high-quality rinse water for electronics, surface finishing, and optical-glass processes and for electronics applications. Because it is able to meet United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) purified water specifications, including those for bacteria and pyroxenes, CEDI systems are frequently used in the pharmaceutical industry, hospitals, university research facilities and dialysis centers. In the paper that we are going to present, we intend to speak about the functioning of a CEDI device.

Keywords: Continuous Electro deionization ( CEDI ), Electro deionization ( EDI ), Water management systems, Ionic contaminants, Pollution free, Higher efficiency



A Theoritical Study on Removal and Recovery Of Volatile Organic Compounds From Aqueous Solutions By Pervaporation

ABSTRACT:
         Strategies for dealing with industrial liquid wastes involve both reducing the quantityproduced and their environmental impact. So there is a considerable amount of researchwork going on throughout the world for better and better technologies for reduction, recovery and recycling of hazardous liquid wastes. Adsorption methods using activated charcoal and biological treatment are the presently practicing methods industrially for the treatment of liquid discharges. However these are not very energy efficient methods. Pervaporation proves to be a good alternative to the currently practicing methods of recovering organic solvents from process effluents since it has the advantages – improved selectivity, reduced energy consumption and separation of azeotropic mixtures and mixture of components with close boiling points. Pervaporation is an energy efficient (low temperatures and pressures) combination of membrane permeation and evaporation. It is often an attractive alternative to other separation methods. Pervaporation is a membrane process in which a liquid is maintained at atmospheric pressure on the feed or upstream side of the membrane and where permeate is removed as a vapor because of a low vapor pressure existing on permeate or downstream side. This low (partial) vapor pressure can be achieved by employing a carrier gas or using a vacuum pump. Membranes like poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polyamide, copolymers and ceramicfilled membranes have shown high selectivity for removal of VOCs such as chloroform, benzene and toluene from water by pervaporation due to their hydrophobic nature. In this present study the factors affecting the membrane performance such as molecular flux, perm selectivity, permeability coefficient are described. The status of the research work carried out on preparation of various suitable membranes for the removal of VOCs has also been
explained.

Key words: Pervaporation, Volatile organic compounds, membrane materials



A Two-step acid-catalyzed process for the production of biodiesel from rice bran oil
Abstract :
A study was undertaken to examine the eect of temperature, moisture and storage time on the accumulation of free fatty acid in the rice bran. Rice bran stored at room temperature showed that most triacylglyceride was hydrolyzed and free fatty acid (FFA) content was raised up to 76% in six months. A two-step acid-catalyzed methanolysis process was employed for the ecient conversion of rice bran oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME).  The first step was carried out at 60  C. Depending on the initial FFA content of oil , 55–90% FAME content in the reaction product was obtained. More than 98% FFA  and less than 35% of TG were reacted in 2 h. The organic phase of the first step reaction product was used as the substrate for a second acid-catalyzed methanolysis at 100  C. By this two-step methanolysis reaction, more than 98% FAME in the product can be obtained in less than 8 h. Distillation of reaction product gave 99.8% FAME  (biodiesel) with recovery of more than 96%. The residue contains enriched nutraceuticals such as c-oryzanol (16–18%), mixture of phytosterol, tocol and steryli ester (19–21%).


ADSORPTION KINETICS FOR CADMIUM REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY UNTREATED COCOS NUCIFARAL

ABSTRACT:
The batch removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using low-cost adsorbent (powdered coconut husk powder) under the influences of initial cadmium ion concentrations (23 to 188 mg/l), pH (1 to 14) and particle size of coconut husk powder (53 to 212μm) were investigated. Coconut husk powders were collected from         Andhra University region, washed with distilled water, air dried, and ground into powder and sieved into different sieve sizes using British standard sieve. Powdered coconut husk powder was stored in a desiccator for use. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics of cadmium were studied. The study revealed that there was a slight reduction in the rate of adsorption of cadmium ion onto the larger particle size, but adsorption capacity and parameters were unaffected. Cadmium is removed in the range of variables studied; percentage removal is increased from 50.62 % to 91.98 %. The pH optimum for cadmium removal was 7. The adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetic studied through the use of graphical method revealed that Freundlich, activated sludge adsorption and pseudo second-order kinetic models correlate significantly with the experimental data with correlation coefficient of not less than 0.964.
Keywords Cadmium, Adsorption kinetics, Low-cost adsorbents, aqueous solution, Adsorption isotherms


Algoleum
---the third generation biofuel
ABSTRACT:
Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO2-enriched air can be converted to oily substances. Such an approach can contribute to solve major problems of air pollution resulting from CO2 evolution and future crisis due to a shortage of energy sources. Compared with second generation biofuels, algae are high-yield high-cost (30 times more energy per acre than terrestrial crops) feedstocks to produce biofuels. One advantage of many biofuels over most other fuel types is that they are biodegradable, and so relatively harmless to the environment if spilled.



ANALGESIC AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES Of mukiA maderaspatana

Abstract:                    

 Introduction:
Tamil Siddha Vaidyans widely using the juice obtained from the leaves of mukia maderaspatana in treating fever, headache and muscular pain. Based upon the information available mukia maderaspatana was selected for analgesic and antipyretic activity.
                      
Objectives:
The objectives of the present study is based on the following:
        
·         Authentication of plant                  
·         Pharmacognostic evaluation
·         Successive solvent extraction
·         Pharmacological screening of
§  Analgesic activity
§  Antipyretic activity


Autism-a brain development disorder
Abstract:
Autism is a highly variable brain development disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behaviour.Autism first appears during infancy or childhood, and generally follows a steady course without remission. The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) also include related conditions with milder signs and symptoms. Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by multigene interactions or by rare mutations. Symptoms tend to continue through adulthood, although often in more muted form. It is distinguished not by a single symptom, but by a characteristic triad of symptoms: impairments in social interaction; impairments in communication; and restricted interests and repetitive behaviour. Other proposed causes, such as childhood vaccines, are controversial, and the vaccine hypotheses lack any convincing scientific evidence. The prevalence of ASD is about 6 per 1,000 people, with about four times as many boys as girls. The number of people known to have autism has increased dramatically since the 1980s, partly due to changes in diagnostic practice; the question of whether actual prevalence has increased is unresolved.
Autism's symptoms result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain .Autism is one of the five pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), which are characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, and severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. These symptoms do not imply sickness, fragility, or emotional disturbance..
Autism affects many parts of the brain; how this occurs is not understood. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child's life. Although early behavioral or cognitive intervention can help children gain self-care, social, and communication skills, there is no known cure..
Diagnosis is based on behavior, not cause or mechanism. Sample symptoms include lack of social or emotional reciprocity, stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language, and persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.A pediatrician commonly performs a preliminary investigation by taking developmental history and physically examining the child. If warranted, diagnosis and evaluations are conducted with help from ASD specialists, observing and assessing cognitive, communication, family, and other factors using standardized tools, and taking into account any associated medical conditions. A differential diagnosis for ASD at this stage might also consider mental retardation, hearing impairment.

Keywords :Autism, Remission, Pervasive, Cognitive intervention, emotional reciprocity, pediatrician, mental retardation.



BIO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING-BIO REACTOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS

ABSTRACT:
Extensive application of bioprocesses has generated an expansion in biotechnological knowledge, generated by the application of biochemical engineering to biotechnology. Microorganisms produce alcohols and acetone that are used in industrial processes. The knowledge related to industrial microbiology has been revolutionized by the ability of genetically engineered cells to make many new products. Genetic engineering and gene mounting has been developed to enhance industrial fermentation. Ultimately, these bioprocesses have become a new way of developing commercial products. The biochemical engineering and bio technology demonstrates the application of biological sciences in engineering with theoretical and practical aspects to enhance understanding of knowledge in this field.
            Bio reactor is the center of all biochemical processing. Bio reactor is a vessel in which is Carried out a chemical process which involves organisms or biologically active substances derived from such organisms. By combining our knowledge of the kinetics of biological reactions with the material and energy balances, we can, at least in principle, design and analyze the behavior of the bio reactor. In this we shall initially consider various simplifications that permit the essential features of bioreactor design to become apparent. This involves the use of simplified kinetic models and the assumption of behavior for both liquid and gas phases in the bio reactor. By considering several idealized bioreactors, mathematically tractable design solutions can be obtained. The deviations from ideality can then be incorporated by modifying these solutions.
Most biological reactors are multiphase systems. The biocatalyst may be present as a solid phase, for example as an immobilized enzyme or as an individual cell. Typically, gas is sparged into microbial reactors to supply oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. The hydrodynamic behavior of each phase needs to be considered. There are several types of batch reactor operation we shall consider to date, we have only considered batch reactors, with no flows in or out of the system. In the idealized case, batch reactors have a homogeneous continuous phase; the liquid phase is well –mixed and of uniform temperature and composition. There is  no spatial variations in reactant or product concentrations. The gas phase in aerobic batch reactor may be well-mixed or may be modeled by plug flow. The kinetics of the reaction are considered are key in determining the bioreactor behavior. These features will be illustrated in the following sections.

Key Words: Bio reactor, batch reactor, continuous stirred reactors, chemostat in series, plug flow and plug bed reactors.


BIOREACTOR FOR THE REMOVAL OF SO2  FROM WASTE AIR
 Abstract
Air pollution is increasing day by day due to the rapid industrialization and urbanization. Sulfur Dioxide is one of most noxious air pollutant, which is harmful to the habitat and Ecosystem. Different control technologies are being applied for source reduction and end of the pipe treatment of SO2. These technologies cannot reduce the concentration of SO2 to zero level and accordingly, stacks are being used for discharging the flue gas. Besides this, there is no control on the emissions form automobile exhaust. The life of SO2 in atmosphere is small because, immediately after the emission it would be converted to sulfurous acid and results in acid rain due to photochemical and other reactions. Therefore, treatment of waste gases containing SO2 to zero level is highly important for ecological balance. Studies are conducted in an anaerobic batch, semi-continuous and continuous Bioreactor for the treatment of SO2 containing air in order to understand the various parameters. Sulfur dioxide was generated using copper turnings and sulfuric acid. Media composition is optimized for growing SRB’s and absorbing Sulfur dioxide. Mixed cultures of SRB’s are isolated & acclimatized. The study shows that sulfite can be degraded to sulfide to the tune 80-90% at inlet concentration of approximately 350 mg/L with Hydraulic residence time of 6 days. The reactor was stable in terms of pH and no loss of microbial population is observed. The batch and semi-continuous reactors are operated repeatedly for number of cycles in order to understand the reproducibility and stability of the microbes in the reactor. The studies also show that dynamic equilibrium is establishing for Sulfide in aqueous phase and H2S in gas phase. Culture showed excellent microbial activity & specific productivity during the course of study for all the experiments. The studies revealed that by the application of appropriate Bioreactor, SO2 from the waste gas could be removed to zero level.



CHEMPUTER

ABSTRACT:
CHEMPUTER is a software Package for designing of Chemical Engineering Equipments in Chemical Process Industries. The word CHEMPUTER derived from Chemical + Computer i.e., Computer Application in Chemical Engineering. Computer in chemical enginering is primarily a record for new development in the application of computing and system technology of chemical engineering problems.
In this project we have programmed for the designing of chemical engineering equipments using C with accessability of S.I units. We included both heat & mass transfer equipments. This software gives the full detail of design specifications and energy requirements of equipments by giving appropriate input data. It also gives a model diagram for equipments and appropriate graphs. And it also contains inhouse database, which considerably reduces time and effort for data collection. It provides user friendly and user interactive environment, which is helpful for designing and learning.

Keywords: Chemputer, C, Database.

Complex Chemical Reactions- A Solution with New Generation Catalysts

Abstract:
Selection of catalyst and its preparation for complex chemical ions is a challenging task. Therefore in this work the attention is focused on classification of different catalysts, their supports and the suitability of them to various complex reactions. This paper further discusses about catalyst preparation methods like impregnation, drying, calcination and different catalyst characterization techniques like XRD, TPR, BET, etc.,. Few case studies on use of vanadia based catalysts, nickel as catalyst and metal phosphates as catalysts were also included. Finally the catalyst activation, deactivation, types of deactivation   catalyst activity, selectivity, stability, and regeneration are presented. 


Conceptual Design of a Condensing Heat Exchanger for Space Systems Using Porous Media


ABSTRACT:
Condensing heat exchangers are used in many space applications in the thermal and humidity control systems .In International space station (ISS), humidity control is achieved by using water cooled fin surface over which the most air condenses, followed by slurper bars that take in both the condensate and air into a rotary separator and separates the water from air. The use of a cooled porous substrate as the condensing surface provides an attractive alternate that combines both heat removal as well as liquid/gas separation into a single unit. By selecting the pore sizes of the porous substrate a gravity independent operation may also be possible with this concept. Condensation of vapor into and on the porous surface from the flowing air and the removal of condensate from the porous substrate are the critical processes involved in the proposed concept. This paper describes some of the preliminary results of the proposed condensate with drawl process and discusses the ongoing design and development work of a porous media based condensing heat exchanger.



Conservation of energy in petroleum Industries
 
Abstract:

            Economy in energy consumption is one of the most critical needs in the present time of high cost and scarcity of energy and will be more so in future. Industries are applying the 'total energy concept' in designing new integrated plants having full conservation and self- sufficiency in energy and are also expanding and modernizing existing plants to improve energy economy. This paper deals with the optimization of energy consumption in petroleum industries as they rank third in consumption of energy, after chemical and metallurgical industries. The overall energy use in the refinery totals to 6330MJ/t of crude oil, which accounts for 3980MJ/t crude in the main process units and with additional 2350MJ/t crude for non-process consumption. A typical refinery gets 78% of energy from fuels, 10% from steam, 11% from electricity and l% from cooling water. The refinery will always try to burn the lowest value product as fuel e.g. refinery overhead gases, heavy fuel oil, petroleum coke in addition to natural gas. The cost of energy as percentage of product value is 5-10%. In a typical integrated petroleum refinery, the crude distillation unit handles all the crude in the atmospheric section and 0.46tonne crude of residue in the vacuum distillation section. Coking unit may include drum coking at about 770-990k and l-2bars, of the lube fraction from heavy vacuum residual oil for upgrading and related fractionation. Hydro desulphurization unit deals with naphtha and light gas oil and kerosene, similarly catalytic reforming unit works at720-810k and 20-40bars catalytic cracking unit at 740k and regenerator at 900k ,sometimes refineries also include vis -breaking of vacuum residuum, hydro cracking isomerisation, polymerization of olefins and steam reforming for hydrogen production, so energy loss occurs in a refinery in the form of heat losses like radiation and convection losses, heat loss from outgoing process steam and heat losses in stack gases .defects in major equipment for unit operations and processes in the different units of the refinery such as (1)fired heaters(2)heat exchangers and condensers(3)fractionating towers and distillatingcolumns (4) pumps, compressers, blowers(5)electrical and steam system. Improvements in all these items of equipment can save up to 19.4% of the refinery energy bill.

Keywords: Energy conservation, heat, petroleum, equipment, design, recovery.

Decolorisation of turquoise blue dye by ozonation, O3/H2O2 and Fenton processes
Abstract:
In this study, the decolorisation of turquoise blue has been investigated by applying Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) such as ozonation, O3/H2O2 and Fenton. The effect of oxidant concentration on color removal has been studied for 100, 300 and 500 ppm of synthetic dye solution. It has been observed that initial dye concentration has an inverse effect on the efficiency of oxidation process for applied AOPs. The color removal efficiency using hydrogen peroxide alone was found to be 23% for 100 ppm dye solution. However, the color treatment efficiency reached to 57% when hydrogen peroxide was exposed along with FeSO4 in Fenton process. Similarly, ozone when combined with hydrogen peroxide improved the efficiency of color removal from 72% to 90% for 100 ppm dye solution. The applied processes followed the trend O3/H2O2 > O3 > Fenton process >   H2O2 for color removal at constant pH of 6 and 25oC temperature.

Keywords: Decolorisation, AOPs, Fenton process, O3/H2O2


DENDRIMERS- A PLATFORM FOR TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY
Abstract:
Dendrimers are spheroid or globular nanostructures that are precisely engineered to carry molecules encapsulated in their interior void spaces or attached to the surface. Size, shape, and reactivity are determined by generation (shells) and chemical composition of the core, interior branching, and surface functionalities.
The first dendrimers were synthesized divergently by Vögtle in 1978, by Denkewalter and coworkers at Allied Corporation as polylysine dendrimers in 1981, by Tomalia at Dow Chemical in 1983 and in 1985, and by Newkome in 1985. In 1990 a convergent synthesis was introduced by Fréchet. This resulted in over 5,000 scientific papers and patents published by the end of 2005.
The properties of dendrimers are dominated by the functional groups on the molecular surface. For example, a dendrimer can be water-soluble when its end-group is a hydrophilic group, like a carboxyl group. It is theoretically possible to design a water-soluble dendrimer with internal hydrophobicity, which would allow it to carry a hydrophobic drug in its interior. Dendrimers can be used for drug delivery systems (DDS) that can be targeted to the body.
There are attempts to use dendrimers in the targeted delivery of drugs and other therapeutic agents. Drug molecules can be loaded both in the interior of the dendrimers as well as attached to the surface groups. There are many substances which have a strong therapeutic activity but due to their lack of solubility in pharmaceutically acceptable solvents have not been used for therapeutic purposes. The bound substrates may be released upon contact with the target organism. 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) is known to have remarkable antitumour activity, but it has high toxic side effects. PAMAM dendrimers after acetylation can form dendrimer-5FU conjugates.  Such dendrimers seem to be potentially useful carriers for anti-tumour drugs. Dendrimers can act as carriers, called vectors, in gene therapy. Vectors transfer genes through the cell membrane into the nucleus. Currently liposomes and genetically engineered viruses have been mainly used for this.
Dendrimers are recognized as one of the major commercially available nanoscale building blocks. Nanotechnology encompasses sizes that are much larger than most molecules but much smaller than cells. The versatility of dendrimers applications in various therapeutic areas illustrates that these are the platform for the future targeting of drugs and substantiates its role in the emerging field of nanomedicine and targeting of drugs in the field of cancer.

Key words:  Dendrimer, targeting of drugs, nanomedicine, dendrimer applications.


Design-Development of Fischer - Tropsch Synthesis Reactor &
Catalysts and their Interrelationship



Abstract:    
The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Synthesis process is an unique example of catalyst and catalytic reactor interrelationship, as a dozen type of reactors have been investigated during the development of the process since 1923. From these investigations it is seen that different types of catalysts are needed for different types of F-T reactors. Relevant fundamental design aspect of various type of F-T reactors have been examined from the view point of catalyst - reactor interrelationship. Analysis have shown the role of active site and its concentration, pore size, effect of liquid hydrocarbons presence during synthesis in the pores on pore diffusion and ultimate effective utilization of total volume of catalyst and reactor. Different physical properties of catalyst have been found to be associated with different reactor configuration while dealing with heat transfer system design.


EFFECT OF ENROBING TREATMENT ON MICROBIAL QUALITY OF CHICKEN PATTIES DURING REFRIGERATED STORAGE
 
Abstract:
            Edible coating are the substances that are used to preserve and enhance the quality of processed foods. They farm a thin continuous layer of edible material on the surface of food components that provide water vapors lightness and farm a good barrio against microbial invasion hence reducing the spoilage of food products. Attempt has been made to enrob the patties with bengal gram batter (1:1.3 batter ratio) for improving its microbial quality. Result revealed that significantly lower total plate count and yeast & mould count was observed in enrobed chicken patties as compared to control. Coating with bengal gram not only improved the appearance but also increase the shelf life upto 30 days at refrigerated storage as compared to control patties.  


Effect of welding processes on tensile properties of AA6061
Aluminium alloy joints

ABSTRACT:  
The present investigation is aimed at to study the effect of welding processes such as GTAW, GMAW and FSW on mechanical properties of AA6061 aluminium alloy. The preferred welding processes of these alloys are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. In this alloy, the weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often causes inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid phase welding technique developed primarily for welding metals and alloys that heretofore had been difficult to weld using more traditional fusion techniques. Rolled plates of 6mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing single pass butt welded joints. The filler metal used for joining the plates is AA4043 (Al-5Si (wt%)) grade aluminium alloy. In the present work, tensile properties, micro hardness, microstructure and fracture surface morphology of the GMAW, GTAW and FSW joints have been evaluated, and the results are compared. From this investigation, it is found that FSW joints of AA6061 aluminium alloy showed superior mechanical properties compared with GTAW and GMAW joints, and this is mainly due to the formation of very fine, equiaxed microstructure in the weld zone.


Effluent Treatment in Coke Ovens-A Case Study

Abstract:
In present scenario of environment pollution, particularly water pollution, coke ovens are facing serious problems in effluent treatment. Water is used in large quantities for quenching of hot coke and washing gas produced in the oven. The effluent generated contains high levels of suspended solids, BOD, COD, tar, ammonia, phenols, cyanides and other toxic substances which are difficult to handle. Any reduction in the volume of effluents makes a big impact on the process flow sheet. To mitigate the surface water pollution and for byproduct recovery the waste water management should be essential. 
One large coke ovens in Vizag Steel Plant has been chosen to evaluate the characteristics of the effluent and to develop a strategy for the suitable treatment method. This study was carried out to determine the pollution load and examine the effectiveness of treatment system along with a discussion on ISO norms. Hence this paper provides settling characteristics and limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable. In addition, it discusses about the solid waste disposal problems with the concern for its safe disposal. 
The study reveals the further implementations to meet the statutory, PCB (Pollution Control Board) environmental standards before disposal. Finally this paper suggests ZLD (Zero liquid discharge) as the promising alternative for treatment of coke plant effluents. The process is operated with an inherently sustainable zero waste mode. This is also a process of converting waste into value added material, though it is a tough requirement from techno-economical viewpoint. 

Keywords: Mechanical Biological and Chemical (MBC) treatment, Quenching, Safe disposal, Zero liquid discharge. 



EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON STABILIZATION OF pH WHEN ACTIVATED CARBON IS USED FOR TREATMENT OF AN AQUEOUS EFFLUENT

           
ABSTRACT:
One of the major purification process used very commonly industrially is ADSORPTION using ACTIVATED CARBON. The effluent stream after passing through the bed of activated carbon shows a rapid increase in the pH ranging from 3-4. This undesired increase in the pH leads to adverse effects in the effluent stream. This affects the soil grade in the nearby area also it possess a major threat to the aquatic life. Such effluent streams cannot be let directly into the environment without any further downstream processes. This innovative METHOD of making pH stable when ACTIVATED CARBON is used ensures that the pH of the stream is maintained without any adverse change.
om experiments carried out we have inferred that this method shows deviation of the pH within UNITY. This method exploits the acidic property of a carboxylic acid. The activated carbon composition is prepared by immersing an activated carbon in an aqueous solution of a carboxylic acid containing compound. The aqueous solution is passed through the bed such that the flow of the aqueous solution to be purified into the bed and the flow of purified aqueous solution from the bed has a pH differential less than. ±1pH.


FINDING THE INTERACTING MOLECULES IN MOLECULAR MODELLING DRUG DESIGNING

  
Abstract:
Finding interacting molecules of a lead molecule or interaction between a drug and its target is principle step in developing and designing potential drug. The traditional methods of tackling this problem are time and money consuming and finding structure, activity and interactions is laborious, not always successful and yet always can not assure the desired output. The aim of our paper is to use the software like DISCOVERY STUDIO, which utilizes cutting-edge science to address the drug discovery challenges of today. In this view of approach we worked on cancer cell and paclitaxel and some more drugs where we referred different online publications and protein data bases and restricted our work in understanding different properties of drug, its interactions and other physiochemical properties. This also helps in finding one main property in quantitative structural activity relationship of the drug and it is a time saving process.

key words: interacting molecules, drug, discovery studio, PDB(protein data base).


Flow structures and mixing analysis of a Newtonian fluid in a Periodically-driven cavity
                                               
Abstract:
The time dependent fluid flow in a square cavity was studied using model fluids of glycerol water solution at different frequencies and amplitudes of the motion of the top plate. The range of Reynolds numbers in our investigation varied from 5-3600. The experiments were carried out in a square cavity with a periodically driven lid using Particle Image Velocimetry. The flow was driven by moving the top surface of the cavity in a simple harmonic motion. The aspect ratio defined as the ratio of cavity width to the cavity height is unity. The ratio of cavity span wise width to the length of the cavity is 0.2. The temporal variation of velocity at fixed locations in the cavity exhibits a periodic variation and is in good agreement with the CFD simulations. Comprehensive details of the flow as a function of Reynolds number were analysed. The evolution of secondary vortices at different plate positions as a function of Reynolds number is also presented. The quantitative mixing rate is calculated from the CFD simulations, for the block of fluid represented by the particle array. The average stretch rate, measure of mixing is found to increase with Re.


Fluidization behavior of Al2O3 / C binary mixture powder
              
 ABSTRACT: 
Fluidization of Al2O3 / C binary mixture powder with weight ratio of 1:3 has been studied. Individual component powders and the mixture belong to Geldart C type. The fluidization behavior of the binary mixture has been compared with those of the individual components. Agglomerate bubble fluidization has been observed in each case. Agglomerate particle size has been determined during fluidization from terminal velocity, Ut ; density of agglomerates, ra, from bulk density of the static bed and minimum fluidization velocity, Umf from the Ergun’s Equation. Umf is maximum in case of the mixture. From the results from light scattering experiments of individual component particles, SEM studies and particle size determination from the terminal velocity it could be concluded that agglomeration takes place during fluidization. No transient fluidization has been observed in mixture powder while steady fluidization has been noticed in individual component powder.


GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY FROM AUTOMOBILE EXHAUSTED AIR


ABSTRACT:
This paper presents the system-level and component design of a micro wind turbine power plant on a chip. Using silicon micro fabrication processes, it has been suggested that common power generation systems could be miniaturized efficiently. These micro engines convert the kinetic energy of the hot air into mechanical energy and which is then converted into electrical energy. The fabrication approach is based on lithography, deep reactive ion etching, and aligned bonding of silicon and glass wafers.
Expected power levels range from 1-12 W per chip with energy conversion efficiency in the range of 1- 11%. Our paper focuses on converting the waste heat from the automobile (car) engine and also to avoid pollution. The paper mainly explains about the under lying principles of MEMS and pollution control.

Keywords: Micro wind turbine; Micro engine; Lithography


IMPORTANCE OF CYCLODEXTRINS IN HUMAN MEDICINE
Abstract:
The objective of this review is to summarize recent findings on the safety profiles of three   natural cyclodextrins (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/giflibrary/12/agr.gif-, http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/giflibrary/12/bgr.gif- and http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/giflibrary/12/gamma.gif-CDs) and sevemodified CDs. To demonstrate the potential of CDs in pharmaceutical formulations, their stability against non-enzymatic and enzymatic degradations in various body fluids and tissue homogenates and their pharmacokinetics via parenteral, oral, ransmucosal, and dermal routes of administration are outlined. Furthermore, the ioadaptabilities of CDs, including in vitro cellular interactions and in vivo safety profiles, via a variety of administration routes are addressed. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides which have recently been recognized as useful pharmaceutical excipients. The molecular structure of these glucose derivatives, which approximates a truncated cone or torus, generates a hydrophilic exterior surface and a nonpolar cavity interior. As such, cyclodextrins can interact with appropriately sized molecules to result in the formation of inclusion complexes. These noncovalent complexes offer a variety of physicochemical advantages over the unmanipulated drugs including the possibility for increased water solubility and solution stability. Some general observations are made predicting drug solubilization by cyclodextrins. In addition, methods which are useful in the optimization of complexation efficacy are reviewed. Finally, the stabilizing/destabilizing effects of cyclodextrins on chemically labile drugs are evaluated. Some cyclodextrins are produced industrially, and available in pharmaceutical quality, at reasonable prices. Their medicinal use means mainly--but not exclusively--the complexation of problematic drugs (poorly soluble, unstable, irritating, difficult to formulate substances). The CD complexation generally results in improved wettability, dissolution, and solubility; improved stability; reduced side effects; or in mildering of other undesired properties (e.g., bitter tastes, bad smells). CDs can be used advantageously practically in any drug forms: oral, rectal, pulmonary, external, ocular, etc. formulations. With appropriate highly soluble chemically modified CDs aqueous parenteral formulations can be prepared from poorly soluble drugs. Using CDs the transdermal penetration or nasal absorption of such drugs becomes possible, which earlier could not be administered through these ways. The direct therapeutic effects of CDs (or their derivatives) are demonstrated in several examples as well as the use of beta CD as vehicle in tabletting.


Incredulous Stevia: Exhilarating the faces of diabetic world
ABSTRACT:
Stevioside, an abundant component of Stevia rebaudiana leaf, has become well-known for its intense sweetness (250–300 times sweeter than sucrose) and is used as a non-caloric sweetener in several countries. A number of studies have suggested that, beside sweetness, stevioside along with related compounds, which include rebaudioside A (second most abundant component of S. rebaudiana leaf), steviol and isosteviol (metabolic components of stevioside) may also offer therapeutic benefits, as they have anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-diarrheal, diuretic, and immunomodulatory actions. It is of interest to note that their effects on plasma glucose level and blood pressure are only observed when these parameters are higher than normal. As steviol can interact with drug transporters, its role as a drug modulator is proposed. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pharmacological actions, therapeutic applications, pharmacokinetics and safety of stevioside and related compounds. Although much progress has been made concerning their biological and pharmacological effects, questions regarding chemical purity and safety remain unsolved. These issues are discussed to help guide future research directions.
Keywords: Diabetes; Hypertension; Sweetener; Stevioside; Therapeutics; Toxicity


Ionic liquids in Green Process Engineering, A Review
ABSTRACT:
Increasing awareness of the detrimental effects of industrial chemical use on the environment and the general well being of the public has caused a significant reduction in the quantities of chemical waste products produced annually. There is a necessity to revamp some of the existing processes to meet the environmental regulations based on the principles of Green Chemistry and also to make the process eco-friendly. Ionic liquids are receiving an upsurge of interest as green solvents; primarily as replacements for conventional media in chemical processes. This paper gives an overview of the chemistry that has been developed utilizing ionic liquids as either catalyst and/or solvent, with particular emphasis on processes that have been taken beyond the pre-competitive laboratory stage and represent clean industrial technology with significant cost and environmental benefits. Key highlights and remaining challenges for widespread industrial application are also outlined.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Green Chemistry, Green Technology


Isolation and Characterization of Indole Alkaloids from Rauwolfia serpentina.

ABSTRACT:
This research work was carried out by M. Pratyusha Reddy, P. Hari Chandana and K. Harsha Vardhan Reddy in the Natural Products Laboratory of Indian Institute of Science and Technology.
Rauwolfia.serpentina is an evergreen tropical plant, very important in the pharmacopoeia of Ayurvedic medicine for the past 4000 years, effective against various central nervous system and intestinal disorders. In1957, 1500 papers on the use of snakeroot for schizophrenia and other mental illness were published which revolutionized treatment of mental illness in replacing heretofore used treatments such as electric shock therapy and lobotomies. Several research papers were published on the alkaloids present in fresh samples of the plant but their degradation with time in long standing roots of R. serpentina was not heretofore studied and hence constitutes the aim of this work.
In this work we have extracted the alkaloids in the old air dried roots of R. serpentina by acid-base extraction methods and the alkaloids were isolated by chromatographic techniques-preparative TLC and column chromatography. The isolated alkaloids were then analysed and characterisezed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Mass Spectroscopy and Infra Red Spectroscopy.
From our work we could successfully isolate and characterize the indole alkaloid, yohimbine along with phthalate esters.


LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS AND THE HUMAN BODY

Abstract:
All living systems need energy to function. It is obvious that Humans need food to live, but the reason for this is less obvious. The idea that Humans need energy because they consume energy is, strictly speaking, incorrect. The body can work only from chemical energy. Living organisms are also thermodynamic entities, in which thermal process are characterized by energy flows and fluxes both within the body, and between the body and its environment.

Key Words: Function, Consume, Thermal gradient, comfortable, Liver.


Model Development for removal of organics during Soil Aquifer Treatment

Abstract:
Water is vital to life. To many of us, it is within the reach of a faucet, but for many others it is not. It is fast becoming a scarce resource, more than half the world’s people live in countries where water tables are falling.
In India, water shortages are particularly serious simply because the margin between actual food consumption and survival is so precarious. In a survey of India’s water situation, Fred Pearce reported in New Scientist that the 21 million wells drilled are lowering water tables in most of the country. In North Gujarat, the water table is falling by 6 meters (20 feet) per year. In Tamil Nadu, a state with more than 62 million people in southern India, wells are going dry almost everywhere and falling water tables have dried up 95 percent of the wells owned by small farmers, reducing the irrigated area in the state by half over the last decade.
Water is essential for the existence of life and wastewater reclamation has become increasingly a necessity for increasing water supplies. Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) is a process whereby wastewater effluent from treatment plants is percolated through soil in infiltration basins so as to undergo further purification for water reuse. Waste water is composed of anthropogenic compounds, natural organic matter and soluble microbial products (SMP).  The removal of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) during soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is often used as a surrogate for the removal of potentially harmful organic compounds.  The sustainable removal mechanism for DOC is biodegradation.  This article focuses on the development of a model for the removal of organics during SAT.  Three mechanisms (substrate removal, diffusion/mass transfer and microbial growth) have been considered.  It has been found that the microbial growth model mimics the actual behavior of the removal of organics during SAT. 

Keywords: Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT), modeling, organics, removal.


NEUTRACEUTICALS
Abstract:
The main Aim of our presentation is to focus on the vital benefits of Neutraceuticals which can be derived from flax seed.
When a functional food aids in the prevention and/or treatment of disease and/or disorder (except anemia), it is called a nutraceutical. Neutraceutical a portmanteau of nutrition and pharmaceutical, refers to extracts of foods claimed to have a medicinal effect on human health. These are bioengineered foods. It also implies that the extract or food is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against a chronic disease. Nutraceuticals are often used in nutrient premixes or nutrient systems in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Nutraceutical’ is a term proposed to used a classify foods that ‘provide medical or health benefits’. The term nutraceutical is being commonly used in marketing but has no regulatory definition. Nutraceuticals and functional foods are assuming a middle ground between food and drugs due to growing body of evidence that supports their role in maintaining health and contributing to treatment of disease. Nutrient, herbals and dietary supplements are major constituents of nutraceuticals, which make them instrumental in maintaining health against various disease conditions and thus promote the quality of life Nutrient, herbals and dietary supplements are major constituents of nutraceuticals, which make them instrumental in maintaining health against various disease conditions and thus promote the Nutraceutical are broadly categorized as follows.: Substances with established nutritional function such as:- -> vitamins, minerals, amino acid and fatty acids nutrients. -> herbal and botanical products -> foods for viability, functional food, medical food -> health food ,organic food -> sport and energy product -> natural medicinal products with specific health benefit.
Examples for nutraceuticals are resveratrol from red grape products as an antioxidant, soluble dietary fiber products, such as psyllium seed husk for reducing hypercholesterolemia, broccoli (sulforaphane) as a cancer preventative, and soy or clover (isoflavonoids) to improve arterial health. Such claims are being researched and many citations are available via PubMed to ascertain their foundation of basic research.
Flax Plant Perennial Flax Flower Flax Seeds Brown Flax Seeds
Flax seeds may be tiny but are mighty. They contain high levels of lignans and Omega-3 fatty acids. Lignans may benefit the heart, possess anti-cancer properties and studies performed on mice found reduced growth in specific types of tumors. There is some support for the use of flax seed as a laxative due to its dietary fiber content] though excessive consumption without liquid can result in intestinal blockage. Consuming large amounts of flax seed can impair the effectiveness of certain oral medications, due to its fiber content. Omega-3 fatty acids are a key force against inflammation in our bodies. Flax Seed is High in Fiber. The use of flax fibre in the manufacturing of cloth in northern Europe dates back to Neolithic times


Nuclear Process Heat for Industry
(Thrust Area: Energy Engg. & Renewable Sources of Energy)
                                            
ABSTRACT:
Nuclear energy is an excellent source of process heat for various industrial applications including desalination, synthetic and unconventional oil production, and in the hydrogen production. The potential application of nuclear heat depends mainly on the temperature required. Oil recovery from tar sands and oil refining are the principle factors for the production of hydrogen today. Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis of water, using from any source. Non- fossil sources, including intermittent ones such as wind and solar are important possibilities. However the greater efficiency of electrolysis at high temperatures favours a nuclear source for both heat and electricity. The nuclear heat source is far efficient that it would reduce natural gas consumption by about 30% and can eliminate flue gases. For thermochemical processes an overall efficient of greater than 50% is projected. Combined cycle plants producing both hydrogen and electricity may reach efficiencies of 60%.This series address the application of nuclear energy to Desalination and hydrogen in transport.


Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
Abstract:
Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a technology that converts solar radiation into electrical energy. The OTEC system also generates fresh water as a primary product and generates only enough electricity, as a secondary product, to operate the OTEC system itself. The oceans, being a vast renewable resource, it has the potential to produce billions of watts of electric power. According to some experts this potential is estimated to be about 10^10KW power generation. The significance of discussing this topic lies in the production of significant amount of power with a little impact on the surrounding environment. Considering the economics of OTEC, it is appropriate to determine multiple product systems e.g., electricity, desalinated water, Mari culture, and air conditioning systems. The present paper also covers the basic types of an OTEC power plants cycle that are to be utilized.


Optimization and Simulation Studies on Grindability
of Coal in a Ball Mill

ABSTRACT:
The assessment of the grinding process quality depends on the parameters used in optimization. The present work comprises of optimizing different parameters like time of grinding (t), speed of the ball mill (n), size of balls (Bs), feed quantity (Q), size of feed (Fs) and quantity of additive (Q). The breakage function (k) was correlated with variables of grinding for both the cases of with and without additive. Response surface design was used for determining the regression coefficients and optimum operating parameters for minimizing the power consumption is obtained. The aim of our research paper was to apply Box-Behnken experimental design for modeling of grinding coal using ball mill. Maximum specific surface is obtained at higher speed of the mill. This also correspondence to the speed at which we have minimum energy consumption per unit surface area generated. Specific surface area created increases with increase in ball size. The increase is rapid for larger ball sizes. Specific energy consumption is almost same for all ball sizes. Specific surface area decreases with increase in feed quantity. Specific energy consumption also decreases with feed quantity at all ball sizes. Energy savings are expressed as a percentage of the energy consumption without additive. Using the sets of experimental data obtained and with software package (MATLAB 7.0), mathematical models were then developed to show the effect of each parameter and their interactions on product. Predicted values and obtained values using model equations were in good agreement with the experimental values. This study proved that Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology could efficiently be applied for modeling of grinding coal using ball mill.

Keywords: Ball Mill, Optimization, Response Surface Methodology, Box-Behnken
Design, Specific Surface Area


OXYGEN FROM LUNAR SOIL
ABSTRACT:
The Importance of Lunar Oxygen
Composition of lunar soil (%)
Oxygen            42
Silicon              21
Iron                   13
Calcium            08
Aluminum        07
Magnesium       06
About 45% of the lunar soil and rocks is made up of oxygen, and eventually we’d like to be able to use all of it.
Other                03
Since oxygen is the most abundant element in lunar soil, comprising nearly half of the lunar regolith by weight, oxygen mined from the moon can play a critical role in about 85% of the weight of a typical spacecraft at launch is the oxygen used for rocket space industries.
Lunar oxygen, condensed into liquid and stored in tanks made from lunar metals, can be shipped economically from the moon to refuel spacecraft throughout cislunar space. In this scenario, we would refill the oxygen tanks on the moon before the passenger craft takes off for Earth, delivering another load of oxygen for the next customer.
How to Extract Oxygen from Lunar Soil
First, Find Some Ilmenite
Moon dust is a mixture of many different minerals, and nearly all of them contain oxygen in considerable abundance. One of the most common lunar minerals is ilmenite, a mixture of iron, titanium, and oxygen. (Ilmenite also often contains other metals such as magnesium which we'll blithely ignore here.) For this discussion, we'll concentrate on extracting oxygen from ilmenite because there's lots of the stuff available, and because the chemical processes involved are fairly straightforward.
Chemistry of the Lunar Oxygen Extraction Process
To separate ilmenite into its primary constituents, we add hydrogen and heat the mixture. This produces raw iron, rutile, and water. (Rutile is titanium dioxide, the ore commonly used for producing titanium metal on Earth. In its crystalline form, rutile is a gemstone. As a powder, it's the most common white pigment used in paint.)
The chemical reaction looks like this:
Chemical equation fro the process of separating oxygen, 
      hydrogen, iron, and rutile from ilmenite
KEYWORDS: Ilmenite, regolith, rutile, electrolysis


PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL  SCREENING AND ADAPTOGENIC ACTIVITY OF Chlorophytum borivillianum ROOTS

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
In India, Chlorophytum borivillianum Linn. (Safed Musli) is under commercial cultivation for its peerless healing and health-giving properties. Due to the wide range of applications, it is witnessing steadily growing use in Pharmaceutical, Phyto-Pharmaceutical and Nutraceutical products. In Ayurveda, Safed Musli is reputed for its tonic and aphrodisiac properties. Since very less phytochemical data is available for such an important herb, it is planned to carry out phytochemical screening. Also there is no proper scientific evidence to show its adaptogenic activity hence it is selected to prove scientifically its adaptogenic activity.
METHOD:
A. Phytochemical investigation-
·         Extraction- with alcohol & water.
·         Successive extraction - Petroleum ether, butanol, ethyl acetate and alcohol.
·         Qualitative chemical analysis.
·         Thin Layer Chromatography.
·         Isolation of Saponins.
B. Adaptogenic activity - Alcoholic extract & butanolic fraction of alcoholic extract  of powdered roots were tested for adaptogenic activity using cold stress method.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:
Qualitative chemical analysis of various extracts showed presence of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Saponins & Steroids. Two saponins (S1 & S2) were isolated using preparative TLC. Alcoholic extract showed significant adaptogenic activity.
KEY WORDS :  Chlorophytum borivillianum, saponins, alcoholic extract, adaptogenic activity.


Production and Optimization of alternate fuel from groundnut oil using Cesium substituted Tungstophosphoric acid catalyst
Abstract:
With the recent increase in petroleum prices and the uncertainities concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in using vegetable oils in diesel engines. Energy conservation and management, energy efficiency and environmental protection has led to the replacement of diesel fuel. Biodiesel is non-toxic and has low emission profiles. Alkali catalysts used for transesterification result in disposal and reusability problems which are overcome by the use of heteropolyacid catalyst Cs-TPA. A process for the production of biodiesel from virgin groundnut oil is studied by optimizing the reaction conditions for maximum yield using the synthesized catalyst. Kinetic studies to study the progress of the reaction at the optimized conditions were carried out. The stability of the catalyst for repeated use was tested. The performance of CsTPA was compared with the conventional catalysts (NaOH and KOH). Properties of the virgin oil and biodiesel were measured.  A four stroke diesel engine was employed to compare the performance of biodiesel with diesel as fuel.

Keywords: Heteropolyacid, Bio diesel, Transesterfication, Kinetics, Groundnut oil.



PRODUCTION OF DIESEL FUEL FROM WASTE PLASTICS
ABSTRACT:
Thermo Fuel is a process whereby scrap and waste plastics are converted into diesel fuel. The process uses liquefaction, pyrolysis and the catalytic breakdown of plastics. The process can handle a wide variety of the plastics that is currently being sent to landfills. The process consists of continuous plastics in feed system, pyrolysis gasification chamber, catalytic converter, condensers, gas scrubber, centrifuge, oil recovery line, off gas cleaning. Pyrolysis and catalytic conversion of plastic is a superior method of reusing plastic waste. The distillate product is an excellent fuel and makes Thermo Fuel one of the best, economically feasible and environmentally sensitive recycling processes. A major advantage of the process is its ability to handle unsorted, unwashed plastic and its extremely high efficiency. The most contaminated plastics can be processed without difficulty including silage wrap, trickle tape and other agricultural plastics. The high cetane rating of the fuel ensures safe, clean and efficient operations of diesel engines in any application including trucks, buses, trains, boats, heavy equipment and generators.
Keywords: Thermo fuel, pyrolysis, plastic waste.


REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER BY ELECTROCOAGULATION

ABSTRACT:
The present work deals with the removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic effluents in a batch stirred electrocoagulation with iron – aluminum electrode pair. Several working parameters such as pH, current density, metal ion concentration and operating time were studied in an attempt to achieve the higher removal capacity. Results obtained with synthetic waste water revealed that most effective removal capacities of Chromium metal could be achieved when the pH was kept between 7 and 8. Removal of Chromium during electrocoagulation is due to combined effect of chemical precipitation, co precipitation, sweep coagulation and adsorption. In addition, the increase of current density in a range of 6.7 to 26.7 mA/ cm2 enhanced the treatment rate to reduce metal ion concentration under admissible legal levels. For higher operating time, remarkable removal of Chromium was observed. The method was found to be highly efficient and relatively fast compared to the conventional existing techniques.

Keywords: Electrocoagulation, waste water, Chromium, tannery wastewater, iron – aluminums electrodes.



Removal of Fluoride from Water with Powdered Corn Cobs
Abstract:
The adsorption of fluoride on corn cobs powder was investigated in the present study. Neat  powdered corn cobs did not show remarkable adsorption but aluminum treatedcorn cobs had good adsorption capacity. The parameters studied include the contacttime, concentration, temperature and pH. Near neutral pH was identified as the optimum condition of the medium, and 90 to 120 minutes was the best contact time for maximumfluoride adsorption. The adsorption process was found to follow Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption process was found to be exothermic as adsorption decreased with increasing temperature.

Key words : Adsorption studies, corn cobs powder, fluoride



REMOVAL OF PHENOL FROM WASTE WATER
USING TAMARIND NUT ACTIVATED CARBON

ABSTRACT:
Environmental pollution shows a profound effect on living beings.It has become a major problem in these days .Many harmful compounds are released continuously through water and many solid by products are deposited on to the soil.Removal of these toxic compounds from water is essential .Among the toxic compounds that are released into the environment phenol is one of the harmful organic compound. Higher concentration levels of phenol leads to several adverse effects.The potential sources of phenol in waste water are oil refineries, gas works, coke plants, fertilizer industry, plastics manufacturing plants, textile industries etc., In these days solid waste disposal is also a major problem.Among the solid wastes, agriculturer waste can be utilized as a fertilizer and as a food for the animals.
            Removal of phenol can be achieved economically by using a cost effective technique like adsorption on to activated carbon, a valued product obtained from solid wastes like coconut shell date seeds and tamarind nuts. Removal can also be done using activated alumina and other methods.These processes have the limitation of technical and/or economic constraints. So it is better to choose an economic and ecofriendly method to remove this harmful compound phenol. Our present work deals with the prepararion of tamarind nut activated carbon and removal of phenol using this activated carbon. Comparative study on the adsorption capacities of tamarind nut activated carbon and commercially activated carbon is done.

Removing of CO2 from atmosphere: A boon to the future climate
.
Abstract:
We describe an approach to CO2 capture and storage from the atmosphere that involves enhancing the solubility of CO2 in the ocean by a process equivalent to the natural silicate weathering reaction. HCl is electrochemically removed from the ocean and neutralized through reaction with silicate rocks. The increase in ocean alkalinity resulting from the removal of HCl causes atmospheric CO2 to dissolve into the ocean where it will be stored primarily as HCO3 without further acidifying the ocean. On timescales of hundreds of years or longer, some of the additional alkalinity will likely lead to precipitation or enhanced preservation of CaCO3, resulting in the permanent storage of the associated carbon, and the return of an equal amount of carbon to the atmosphere. Whereas the natural silicate weathering process is effected primarily by carbonic acid, the engineered process accelerates the weathering kinetics to industrial rates by replacing this weak acid with HCl. In the thermodynamic limit—and with the appropriate silicate rocks—the overall reaction is spontaneous. A range of efficiency scenarios indicates that the process should require 100–400 kJ of work per mol of CO2 captured and stored for relevant timescales. The process can be powered from stranded energy sources too remote to be useful for the direct needs of population centers. It may also be useful on a regional scale for protection of coral reefs from further ocean acidification. Application of this technology may involve neutralizing the alkaline solution that is coproduced with HCl with CO2 from a point source or from the atmosphere prior to being returned to the ocean.



RESEALED ERYTHROCYTES USING NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Abstract:
Erythrocytes are the most abundant cells in the human body, have potential carrier capabilities for the delivery of drugs. Erythrocytes are biocompatible, biodegradable, possess long circulation half lives. The use of a physiological carrier to deliver therapeutics throughout the body to both improve their efficacy while minimising inevitable adverse side effects, is an extremely fascinating perspective. the possibility of using carrier erythrocytes for selective drug targeting to differentiated macrophages increases the opportunities to treat intracellular pathogens and to develop new drugs.
 Erythrocytes are potential biocompatible vectors for different bioactive substances, including drugs. These can be used successfully as biological carriers of drugs, enzymes and peptides. There are currently diverse methods that permit drug encapsulation in erythrocytes with an appropriate yield. The methods most commonly employed are based on a high- haematocrit dialysis procedure, mainly hypo-osmotic dialysis.
Erythrocytes loaded with drugs and other substances allow for different release rates to be obtained. Encapsulation in erythrocytes significantly changes the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs in both animals and humans, enhancing liver and spleen uptake and targeting the reticulo-endothelial system (RES).
Amongst other applications, erythrocytes have been used for drug-targeting the RES with aminoglycoside antibiotics; the selective transport to certain organs and tissues of certain antineoplastic drugs, such as methotrexate, doxorubicine, etoposide, carboplatin, etc.; Erythrocytes are attractive systems in the sense of their potential ability to deliver proteins and therapeutic peptides. Thus, erythrocytes have been used for the transport of enzymes destined for the correction of metabolic alterations as Image-asparaginase, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH) among others.
Erythrocytes have been used successfully as carriers of anti-HIV peptides, such as AZT, nucleoside analogues, antisense oligonucleotides, antineoplastic peptides, erythropoietin, interleukin 3,etc. Although erythrocytes have been applied with different uses in human medicine, their deployment is still very limited due to difficulties involving storage, its exposure to contamination and the absence of a validated industrial procedure for its preparation.
Hence,we conclude that resealed erythrocytes using novel drug delivery system plays a crucial role in human medicine even though having minor disadvantages.


Safety Management in Coromandel Fertilizer
Limited plant, vizag
Abstract:
              Safety management and precautions are very important aspects for successful operation of an industry.Infact safety management determines the fate and fortune of success operation of an industry. This is especially applicable to fertilizer producing industry such as coromandel fertilizer limited plant present in vizag. This industrial plant mainly concentrates on the production of urea ammonium phosphate 28:28:0, 14:35:14 NPK .
                                                   In addition to this CFL has the credit of being the first in India to import molten sulphur as prat of Eco-friendly and energy conservation measure.CFL had received British safety Council five star rating for health and satefty management system ,besides, many national and international awards  in the areas of production, safety management. CFL has taken the initiative to implement Process Safety Management  System of occupational safety and health admiistartion (OSHA),USA to bring company par with international standards in operating chemical plants.
                                                   This paper briefly describes the main ideals of process safety management system followed in CFL and it also briefly describes the safety rules and precautions followed in one of the most dangerous plants of the industry i.e. sulphuric acid production plant shortly abbreviated as (SAP).

KEYWORDS: Process safety management,CFL,SAP,NPK,etc.,


Screening for antimicrobial activity of Cinchona officinalis: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections.

Abstract:

Background
The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Cinchona officinalis was evaluated against five bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolytic, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli.), and one yeast (Candida albicans).These plants are  used in folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin.

Methods
Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 μg/ml), clindamycin (0.3 μg/ml) and nystatin (1.0 μg/ml) were used as positive controls.

Results
The ethanol extracts of Cinchona officinalis was active against Staphylococcus aureus.

Conclusion
This in vitro study corroborated the antimicrobial activity of Cinchona officinalis used in folkloric medicine. It was effective against three or more of the pathogenic organisms. However it was ineffective against Streptococcus β hemolytic and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Its medicinal use in infections associated with these two species is not recommended
                                       
Self Healing Of Polymeric Composites
Abstract:
Inspired by biological system, in which damage triggers an autonomic healing response a new class of polymeric composite materials was developed which begins to repair itself as soon as crack forms. Self healing polymeric composite has the potential to defend against material failure, it greatly improves product safety and reliability ultimately extends product life time. Polymeric matrix, microcapsules containing healing agent and catalyst are the major components of the self healing polymeric composites. These new classes of materials find applications in the field of biomedical, paint and coatings, sporting equipments, automobiles, aircraft and aerospace.


Separation of pure water from sea water using carbon nanotubes
Abstract:
In conventional desalination process called reverse osmosis in which brine Is filtrated by a fine membrane so that pure water passes through and the ions are left behind. However, this requires large amount of energy to pump the water through the membrane, which is the reason desalinated water is expensive. But by using an array of short carbon nanotubes with each one just 0.8 nm across, packed side by side as a membrane then water immediately flowed down the nanotubes. What’s the surprise was the speed was ten thousand times faster than predicted and it experiences virtually no friction. The Nacl ions are not flowed down because they are hydrated.But here in the process molecular pumps, gates and values are required to make the process user-friendly.

Scope: They might also be useful for extracting or transporting hydrogen ions to increase the efficiency with which fuel cells generate energy. The membranes can be modified and can be used for molecular separation or molecular sensors. These can also be used to separate mixtures of hydrocarbon gases, filter carbon-di-oxide from a power plant chimney or even extract the gas directly from the air.

Keywords: Hydration of ions, gates, values.

It’s a review paper (It’s taken from the New scientist journal)


STUDIES ON BIOSORPTION OF LEAD ON CORNHUSK USING FACTORIAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
ABSTRACT:
Biosorption process has been proposed as an efficient, potential, cost effective way of removing toxic metals from industrial effluents at low concentrations. In the present study a new biosorbent material cornhusk which accumulates as agroresidue.Was used as adsorbent. Studies on the removal of lead from aqueous solutions using cornhusk were undertaken. The experiments were designed by full factorial design method (4-1 fractional factorial design). The effect of metal concentration, pH of aqueous metal solution and weight of biomass were studied. The results indicate that the amount of Lead adsorbed increased with increase in metal concentration, weight of biomass and pH of the aqueous phase. Finally an empirical equation was developed to estimate the equilibrium distribution of Lead between cornhusk and aqueous metal solution incorporating various parameters studied.

Keywords: Biosorption, Lead removal, Cornhusk, Full factorial experimental design



STUDIES ON IONIC MASS TRANSFER WITH SUBMERGED IMPINGING JETS IN CLOSED CYLINDRICAL CELLS IN THE PRESENCE
OF SOLIDS

ABSTRACT:
 Augmentation of the transfer rates is key objective in engineering practice and research. In industrial operations, various augmentation techniques are in practice which reduced equipment sizes and increases out puts with out impairing the efficiency of product. The enhancement of heat and mass transfer and achievement of uniformity in deposition of mass at large surface areas are achieved due to impinging jets.
                      The presence of solids of a definite size enhances the surface area and hence becomes instrumental for augmentation of the mass transfer coefficient
The literature review revealed that the studies on single submerged jets in closed cylindrical cells in the presence of solid particles were found to be significant.
                     Present investigation is therefore, directed to obtain mass transfer data on the impinging jets in the presence of porcelain beads spherical particles as solids with different diameters of nozzles with varying heights and varying  the percentage volume of solids in the cylindrical cells.
                     Mass transfer rates were evaluated at concentric ring electrodes on the target surface and also on a strip electrode located on the confining wall of the cell ,employing limiting currents for the case of reduction (or)oxidation of the Fe+3 or Fe+2 ion.  

KEY WORDS:  Mass Transfer, Cylindrical Cells, Impinging Jets, Mass Transfer Coefficient, Limiting Current.



GREEN CHEMISTRY

SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION AND ULTRASOUND

ABSTRACT:
Green Chemistry is a recent approach to the synthesis, processing and use of chemicals that reduces risk to humans and the environment. Many innovative methods have been developed over the past several years, that are effective, efficient and more environmentally benign. The benefits to industry as well as the environment are all part of the positive impact that Green Chemistry is having for chemical research and in society in general. EPA has already issued 12 principles concerning Green Chemistry. The principles cover such concepts as: the design of processes to maximize the amount of raw materials that ends up in the product, he use of safe, environmentally benign solvents, the design of energy efficient processes and the best form of
waste disposal.
Among the methods in chemical synthesis that have been recognized to have a 'green' value, are the ones that make use, a) the non-hazardous microwave irradiation and b)    ultrasound. In the present investigation, we applied the above methods for the synthesis N-arylamines and in organic oxidations of alkenes into dioles. We compared the two methods with conventional ones for the same syntheses and their intrinsic 'green' values.

Features

    First we experimented with the use of ultrasound a) in the oxidation of styrene with KMnO4, in aqueous solution, into 1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol and b) the oxidation of allylbromide by the same reagent in aqueous solution, into 3-bromo-1,2-propanediol. These are well known oxidations used in industry for the cleavage or oxidation of carbon- carbon double bonds. Secondly, we used microwave irradiation for the synthesis a) of N-arylamines by the reaction of activated aryl halides (p-bromonitrobenzene) with secondary amines in the presence of basic Al2O3 , in solvent-free conditions, using a domestic microwave oven (350 W). This method is considered eco-friendly chemical process.

Keywords: Green chemistry; ultrasound; microwave; organic synthesis



SYNTHESIS, PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES AND THEIR APPLICATION AS CHEMICAL VAPOUR SENSORS

ABSTRACT:
Carbon nanotubes due to their unique mechanical and electrical properties have been objects of great interest among researchers. They find many applications in the real world such as making sports wear and clothing, combat jackets, super strong composite materials, in electrical circuits, as ultra capacitors, as sensors for detection of chemical vapors to name a few. In this paper carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, followed by their purification, functionalization by chemical treatment with nitric acid and characterization by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. In addition, a carbon nanotube based sensor for alcohol and ammonia detection were fabricated and their response to alcohol and ammonia vapours respectively, was studied by making electrical contacts on printed circuit board. The response of the sensors were obtained as voltage versus time curves in an oscilloscope connected to a PC based work station. These curves were converted to resistance versus time curve using Ohm’s law. Advantage is taken of that carbon nanotubes when functionalized with appropriate groups and brought into contact with chemical vapours, its conductance and hence resistance changes. This happens as long as the sensor is in contact with the alcohol vapours. It was found that as soon as the contact between sensor and chemical vapours was broken the resistance of sensor returned to the initial value, measured using a multimeter within few seconds, thus rendering the sensor reusable.


THE ROLE OF OZONE IN WASTE WATER TREATMENT
Abstract:
Ozone is well established as a treatment technology for portable waters, for which it is used as a disinfectant, the degradation of substances of concern, and to enhance the performance of other treatment processes. Although not currently as widely employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters, ozone is similarly becoming important.
The electrical discharge method is the most common energy source used to produce ozone. The key processes control parameters are dose, mixing and contact time. The components of an ozone disinfection system include feed-gas preparation, ozone generation, ozone contacting and ozone destruction.
Applications of ozone technologies to control pollution in full-scale industrial wastewater treatment plant are in the areas of recycling marine aquaria, electroplating wastes, electronic chip manufacture, textiles and petroleum refineries.  The rising acceptance of ozone as a replacement bleaching agent for paper pulp to eliminate the discharge of halogenated effluents from pulp bleaching plants is traced. Newer applications for ozone in treating rubber additive wastewaters, landfill leachates, and detergents in municipal waste waters are summarized briefly. The treatment capabilities of ozone are, in addition, being further enhanced through the use of advanced oxidation processes.
In this view these proceedings review the present and future role of ozone for the treatment of secondary, municipal effluents and landfill leachates, and to illustrate its capabilities by reference to current research and specific case study applications.


UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION
Abstract:
We carried out our Project Work in GAIL (INDIA) Ltd., Auraiya, U.P. for different types of underground coal available in India for determination of best quality coal.UCG typically consists of boreholes drilled into a coal seam and a pressurized oxidant such as air or O2 /steam are used for ignition of coal seam. The oxidant is fed through the injection borehole and the products are got from the production borehole. The gas obtained is cleaner and easier to handle. These reserves can provide security of future energy supplies long after oil and natural gas are exhausted.
    Since UCG is the best method of utilization of low grade coal lignite reserves in India are compared with UCG field trials. Kalol (Gujarat), Kapurdhi (Rajasthan), Neyveli (T.N) match the depth and thickness criteria prescribed by the DTI and are also comparable with lignite used in Angrensikaya (Russia). The coal quantity at these places is sufficient to start UCG if the mining of the coal seam becomes more difficult.
        The major coal types in India are- 
  • Singareni
  • Majra
  • Surat
  • Chandrapur
  • Raipur
     Thermodynamic equilibrium compositions are predicted for five Indian coals. The results show that every coal has different equilibrium compositions at identical set of operating conditions. Hydrogen content in coal increases H2 and CH4. At higher pressures the coal containing higher hydrogen gives higher gross calorific value than pure carbon.
    The GCV and the theoretical flame temperatures of the coals are plotted as a function of the steam to air ratio and the steam to O2 ratio. The higher the GCV shows the higher productivity of the coal and the ease to use it as a fuel efficiently. The GCV increase monotonically and become constant at higher temperature and higher steam to air ratios and steam to O2 ratios.
One of the advantages of our reaction model is that the formation of CO and CO2 has been explicitly accounted for. In general we find that the higher GCV are for the coals which have a high value of H/C and O/C ratio and also these coals ignite at lower temperatures. Furthermore, pure O2 as the feed has the edge over steam and air mixed feed of giving better GCV and lower ignition temperature.

Keywords: Underground Coal Gasification (UGC), Gross Calorific Value (GCV), Synthesis Gas, Adiabatic Temperature.


WATER RECYCLING OF POLYMERS AND ITS MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT:
Plastics have become an essential part and parcel of our everyday life. The major hurdle against increased use of plastics is their non-biodegradability. The ignorance and illiteracy among the masses in disposing the waste plastic into proper containers and lack of proper training to manage it have made this man-made material a danger to environment. It is not plastics itself, but, rather its improper disposal, that is the problem. So, attacking littering and not Plastics, is a better solution. But, some social organizations and government agencies, rather than taking the initiative to make the people aware, have started banning and restricting its uses in the current situation. So, proper awareness programs should be given at academic level, industrial level, research and development level etc. In India, effective recycling of plastic is economy driven and opportunities are lying in the field of waste management. Encouraging the use of bio-degradable plastics is another important suggestion. The solution for an evergreen environment is 3R's of effective waste Management. i.e., Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. All things considered, we would say that, it is our duty to protect our environment.

APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
IN PHARMACY

 ABSTRACT
           
            Twentieth century has opened up new horizons towards its ending, in the form of leading edge technologies i.e., information technology, bio technology, communication technology. However, the advantages of these technologies are often over shadowed by the large gap that they left between the rich and poor in many ways in the recent past, Nanotechnology is fast emerging as a solution to the problems of mankind and is believed by the experts as a promising tool to bring human life back to its enjoyable form abridging the gaps left over by other technologies. Nanotechnology is the design, characterization, production, and application of structures, devices, and systems by controlled manipulation of size and shape at the nanometer scale (atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scale) that produces structures, devices, and systems with at least one novel/superior characteristic or property. This paper brings in a detail report on the evolution and scope of Nanotechnology and reviews its wide range of applications with special emphasis on pharmaceutical applications like drug delivery, cancer therapy, nanoparticle targeting and distribution etc. It also gives a note on the various probable risks of improper use of nanotechnology and concludes that judicious use of nano materials can bring in revolutionary changes in the field of pharmacy in near future.


ASSESMENT OF RISK FACTORS OF CAD
IN MENOPAUSAL WOMEN
ABSTRACT

CAD (Coronary Artery Disease) occurrence in normal women when compared to men is less in general. During the menstrual phase, there will be increased production of hormones like Oestrogen and Progesterone in the females. Among these oestrogen promotes vasodilation which increases the blood flow in the arteries in expectation of pregnancy and baby. But by the end of their menopausal stage women have low level of hormonal production and hence the volume of arteries gets reduced compared to the menstrual phase. This increases the chances acquiring cad. Thorough study will be generally, made by taking a subject group by taking parameters – Lipid profiles and Lipid per oxidation as the major risk factors. Early detection of the above risk factors and certain preventive measures can help preventing cad. Lipid profiles include the detection of blood cholesterol level, triglycerides and HDL {high density lipids). Where as Lipid peroxidation involves the detection of the MDA (Monodialdehyde) levels in the blood Monodialdehyde an end product of lipid peroxidation considered as a key antioxidant. Also the subject group values are then compared with the control group and the analysis of the risk factors is assessed. All the HDL, Cholesterol and triglycerides as well as MDA
values are evaluated from the specific protocols. With the help of these biochemical tests, the chances of getting CAD can be minimized or can reduce its severity by following the necessary precautions.
Key words:  CAD, Oestrogen, Progesterone, Menopause,Lipid profiles, Lipid peroxidation, HDL, MDA.


Autoholic- Ethanol as Fuel
ABSTRACT

It has been estimated that nearly half of the current non-renewable petroleum demand equivalent to about 20% of the world’s energy consumption is being used by 550 million automobiles. This clearly indicates that the vehicles form the predominant source of regulated and unregulated pollution. It has been established beyond doubt that the tail pipe emissions contribute significantly to climate change. The vehicle population continues to increase exponentially and by the year 2010 about 1.1 billion cars are expected to be in use in the world. Unregulated Carbon dioxide emissions, a prominent green house gas, will increase by 65% over the current levels due to large scale use of fossil fuels. To bring down drastically carbon emissions and sustain them over a period of time require a change in the concepts of production and use of transportation vehicles. This arose the concept of alternate fuels.Ethanol is one such alternate fuel which delivers great engine performance and is gentler to environment. Ethanol can be derived from different sources of biomass such as sugar cane molasses, beats, corn, sorghum, potatoes and others. The effective use of Ethanol either as a neat fuel or as a mixture with gasoline has been proved to be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable for quite sometime. Some of the issues involved and strategies to be developed for the effective utilization of Ethanol as a fuel in the transportation sector with special reference to the desirability of developing Flexible Fuel Vehicles as a long term objective for controlling environmental degradation due to tail pipe emissions are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Ethanol, Renewable Fuel, Pollution Control, Performance, Eco-Friendly






        A NEW AQUAPORIN-NANOMEMBRANE FOR
                 EFFECTIVE   WATER TREATMENTS
ABSTRACT

As water costs are expected to increase over the next decade, membrane technology will continue to be viable and economical option in the recovery & reuse of water. This paper describes the mechanism of membrane effected separation(specifically nanofiltration).This paper discusses about the aquaporin incorporated nanofiltration membranes.Aquaporins are proteins found in lipid layer of all living cells, which only transports pure H2O molecules. They have unique selectivity and extremely efficient. This paper brings about the combination of biotechnology and membrane-nanotechnology.Aquaporins are commercially produced by recombinant DNA technology and can be incorporated inside the nano membrane to increase the efficiency of the membrane for multipurpose water treatments for reuse of water. This paper also discusses about a creative e.g. of this product are also described.Although a relatively young technology, long term success will be achieved for water recovery in many areas. Improvements in membranes will reduce the cost of unit processes. Membrane-technology will play a major role in all areas of water recovery for industrial and house hold purposes and salt recovery in the near future the 100%selectivity of aquaporins ensures recovery for drinking purposes when it is mineralized.

KEYWORDS  Membrane technology, Nanomembranes, Membrane-Nanotechnology, Aquaporins, rRNA, Reuse of water, Water recovery.
A New Adsorbent For Arsenic Removal  From Underground  Water

ABSTRACT:
Arsenic contamination in groundwater is a serious problem due to its toxicity. Arsenic
levels above permissible limit of 50 ppb in groundwater have been reported from many parts of the world. Millions of people are suffering from ill effects of excess arsenic intake. Chronic arsenic poisoning  is  manifested  by  various  cancerous and  non-cancerous  disorders.  Arsenic occurs in underground water as arsenate, As (V) and arsenite, As (III) forms. The former is less toxic and easily removable. Removal of arsenite from water is possible only after oxidation to arsenate by any of the available treatment technologies, which is not feasible for small water utilities. A variety of technologies such as coagulation-precipitation, lime softening, ion exchange resins, adsorption with activated alumina and reverse osmosis have been used for the removal of arsenic from water but all these technologies suffer from one or the other drawback. Therefore a new adsorbent material has been developed in the laboratory and batch studies were conducted for  both  arsenate  and  arsenite.  The  results  depicted  that  this  adsorbent  is  highly  selective, effective for  removal of both arsenate and  arsenite  forms, works under wide pH range and produces nonleachable residue. It can remove upto 98% of both arsenate and arsenite from water and is about six times more effective than activated alumina.


         Biofuel from algae – photobiological hydrogen production
                                      andCO2-  fixation.
ABSTRACT
               
The reduction of CO2-emissions that are damaging our climate is one of the major challenges of contemporary energy management. Nature itself offers us possibilities to produce energy CO2-neutrally with the help of hydrogen producing micro-algae. Under certain conditions the light energy collected by photosynthesis is used to transfer electrons to hydrogen producing proteins called    hydrogenases. A new type of hydrogenase that produces molecular hydrogen with high rates was isolated (Happe and Naber, 1993) and characterised on genomic level (Happe and Kaminski, 2002) for the first time in green algae. Processes were recently developed that allow a long-term production of hydrogen by micro-algae (Melis et al., 2000). Under sulphur deprivation the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii adapts its metabolism from oxygen production and CO2-fixation towards hydrogen production. Therefore the biotechnological process is divided into the growth, the hydrogen production and the utilisation and treatment of the available energy in the form of hydrogen and biomass.

Keywords:
bioreactors; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; CO2 fixation; green algae; biofuels; hydrogen production; carbon dioxide emissions; photobiology; biotechnology; biomass; hydrogenases; photosynthesis.

                            BIOCOMPUTING & INFORMATICS
ABSTRACT
“A single electronic card may replace everything in your wallet including, your cash,your credit cards, your ATM card ,your ID cards,your insurance, and your life .FUTURE One card, or one chip, with your life on it.”
“Biochips”-The most exciting future technology is an outcome of the fields of Computer science, Electronics & Biology. Its a new type of bio-security device to accurately track information regarding what a person is doing, and who is to accurately track information regarding what he is doing, and who is actually doing it. It’s no more required with biochips the good old idea of remembering pesky PINs, Passwords, & Social security numbers .No more matters of carrying medical records to a hospital, No more cash/credit card carrying to the market place; everything goes embedded in the chip…. Every thing goes digitalized. No more hawker tricks on the Internet… Biochip has a variety technique for secured E-money transactions on the net. The power of biochips exists in capability of locating lost children, downed soldiers, and wandering Alzheimer patients.
Our contributions to this paper lie in the aspects of .”Implementation of Glucose detector in Biochips,Implementation of Oxygen sensor in Biochips,Implementation of Blood pressure sensor in Biochips,Proposal of Solution for the typical theft problem faced by the   Biochips”The four contributions have been discussed in detail with the proposed principles for implementation of the concepts.A simple ID chip is already walking around in tens of thousands of individuals, but all of them are pets Devices, Ltd. (Santa Barbara, Calif.) sell both the chips and the detectors. The chips are of the size of an uncooked grain of rice, small enough to be injected under the skin using a hypodermic syringe needle. They respond to a signal from the detector, held just a few feet away, by transmitting out an identification number. This number is thencomparedtodatabase listings of registered pets.
 
BIONANOROBOTICS

ABSTRACT

Nanorobotics is emerging as a demanding field dealing with miniscule things at molecular level. Nanorobots are nanoelectromechanical systems designed to perform a specific task with precision at nanoscale dimensions. Nanorobots are nanodevices that will be used for the purpose of maintaining and protecting
the human body against pathogens. The medical nanodevice will be a micron-scale robot assembled from nanoscale parts. These nanorobots can work together in response to environment stimuli and programmed principles. Carbon is the principal element comprising the bulk of the medical nanorobot in the form of diamond. Other elements like hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, silicon etc, will be used for special purpose in nanoscale gears.The exterior surface with near-nanometer smoothness results in very low bioactivity. Due to the extremely high surface energy of the passivated diamond surface and the strong hydrophobicity of the diamond surface, the diamond exterior is almost completely chemically inert.To avoid being attacked by the host’s immune system, the best choice for the exterior coating is a passive diamond coating. The smoother the diamond surface, the lesser is the leukocyte activity and fibrinogen adsorption. on the rougher “polished” surface, a small number of spread and fused macrophages were present, indicating that some activation had occurred. . The various components in the nanorobot design include onboard sensors, motors, manipulators, power supplies, and molecular computers. Its advantage over conventional medicine lies on its size. Particle size has effect on serum lifetime and pattern of deposition. This allows drugs of nanosize to be used in lower concentration and has an earlier onset of therapeutic action. It also provides materials for controlled drug delivery by directing carriers to a specific location .The powering of the nanorobots can be done by metabolizing local glucose and oxygen for energy. Energy within the body is supplied for the devices. A navigational network is installed in the body, with navigational elements providing high positional accuracy to all passing nanorobots that interrogate them, wanting to know their location. This will enable the physician to keep track of the various devices in the body.  This is accomplished by the use of chemotactic sensors keyed to the specific antigens on the target cells. When the task of the nanorobots is completed, they can be sent out through human excretory channels. The nanorobot architecture model has nanobioelectronics as the basis for manufacturing integrated system devices with embedded nanobiosensors and actuators, which facilitates its application for medical target identification and drug delivery. Optimization of the software Nanorobot Control Design (NCD) by applying some techniques such as parallel processing,level of details, and sharing the code in object is done.Such techniques permits to quickly customize new study of cases for different biomedical engineeringapplications keeping the code organized with high performance.

                              COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY:
                      A Stratergy for future drug design

ABSTRACT:

Combinatorial chemistry is one of the important new methodologies developed by academics and researches in the pharmaceutical,agrochemical,and biotechnology industries to reduce the time and costs associated with producing effective,marketable,and competetive new drugs .As with traditional drug design,combinatorial chemistry relies on organic synthesis methoudologies.The difference is the scope instead of synthesizing a single compound combinatorial chemistry exploits automation and miniaturize to synthesize large libraries of compounds. Different combinatorial libraries that are developed one of peptoids,dihydropyridines, ACE inhibitors. Enumeration is the process of automatically generating either sub generic or either fully specified structures (individual compounds) from a generic structure. Enumeration of a parent library enables the researcher to produce structural representations of child libraries, or discrete compound within the library .Combinatorial organic synthesis(COS) is not random,but systematic and repetitive, using sets of chemical "building bloks" to form a diverse set of molecular entities. Scientists have developed several different COS stratergies each with the same basic philosophy-stop shooting in the dark and instead, find ways to determine active compounds within populations,either spatially through chemically encoding,or by systematic,succesive synthesis and biological evaluation(deconvulution). Thus combinatorial chemistry is a promising new field that stands to revolutionaries the chemical industry and demands completly new scientific information management solutions. Combinatorial chemists will be able to meet their goals if they can find ways to plan libraries quickly,produce libraries that better interrogate biological assays and learn from past screening results.
Key Words : combinatorial chemistry, methoudologies, drug designs

COMPARATIVE  STUDY  OF  MALATE DEHYDOGENASE  AND PYRUVATE DECARBOXILASE  IN  PATHOGENIC  AND  NON-PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS

The Malate dehydrogenase and Pyruvate decarboxylase enzymes are very important for bioenergetics of unicellular fungi .MDH is generally involved in aerobic generation of energy through participation in the malate aspirate shuttle and supplying mitochondria with additional doses of NADH. Malate dehydrogenase participates in glyoxolate cycle of fungi, which is required for fungal virulence Pyruvate decarboxylase is one of the key enzymes of anaerobic alcohol fermentation. This enzyme transforms pyruvate to acetaldehyde, halfway contributing to deliver equal doses of NAD+ indispensable for effective glycolysis and generation of ATP in anaerobic condition.In recent journal, the kinetic properties of these two enzymes were compared from from different species were compared under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This comparison lead to find the difference between the enzymes that adapt pathogens for virulence and in searching new antifungal agents . This paper traces out the differences in the properties of MDH & PDC among the non-pathogenic, Sacchoromyces.cerevisiae  &  pathogenic Candida.albicans  &  Malassezia..pachydernatis .
 Journal review  : Canadian Journal Of Microbiology  (54) : 734—741  ( 2008 )

CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES: AN EFFICIENT HYDROGEN STORAGE MEDIUM
FOR FUEL CELLS

ABSTRACT

               The science of nanotechnology, now a days is leaving trademark prospects for better living. The motto of nanotechnology is “ever smaller and ever faster”. In this territory or field it has also encroached its arms into reach and development of hydrogen fuel cells. Carbon nanotubes have been intensively investigated for their fundamental technical importance for hydrogen storage. New techniques being researched may soon make hydrogen storage more compact safe and efficient. This is accomplished by using various approaches to shape carbon into microscopic cylindrical structures known as nanotubes and nanofibers, molecular cousins of “buck minister fullerene” (C60) or “bucky balls”. One of the critical factors in nanotubes usefulness as a hydrogen storage medium is the ratio of stored hydrogen to carbon.
               Developing high-density hydrogen system, about 5-wt% that can release hydrogen at a temperature lower than 1000C has been the focus and the goal of researchers. The basic current approaches of hydrogen storage a compressed gas, liquid or in the form of solid hydrogen. A solid hydrogen storage system is reliable, sample to engineer and tremendously safer. Our objective has been to utilize the physisorption effect and generate chemisorption effect by introducing transition metals and hydrogen bonding clusters is expected to allow us to tune the material for hydrogen sorption at desired temperature and pressures.
               Carbon nanotechnology represents a new direction for solid hydrogen storage. Especially, if these materials can be altered to store large amounts of hydrogen at room temperature, samples have been doped and spectroscopic characterization was conducted. These impeded clusters are capable of bonding large amounts of hydrogen with favorable thermodynamic and enhanced kinetics, while the transition metals catalyze the hydrogen to react with clusters or nanotubes systems.  
 
Chemicals with Insecticidal Properties Isolated from
   a Citrus aurantium Peel Extract
ABSTRACT

Several pressures have accelerated the searchfor more environmentally and toxicologically safe and more selective and efficacious pesticides. Plant secondary metabolites havebeen successfully exploited as insecticides, insect repellents, andinsect antifeedants. Plants of the Rutaceae family are known to
produce chemicals with insecticidal properties. My poster presentsdata on the chemical structures of bioactive secondary metabolitesisolated from abitterorange Citrus aurantium peel extract. And are going to see how effectice they are against bactrocera oleae. Study about the synergistic effects in thecomponents found in the orange peel extract.

Features.

Metabolites were extracted from bitter orange peelswith petroleum ether sonicated for 30 minutes in a Branson5200 sonicator. Bioactivity of the peel extract and the fractionsobtained was tested against Bactrocera oleae adults using thePetri dish contact bioassay. The original extract was separatedby silica gel open column chromatography (MN Kieselgel 60,230–400 mesh, Macherey-Nagel, 4.5 cm i.d. x 32 cm), with 1litter of each of the three solvents, dichlomethane, ethyl acetateand methanol. The active ethyl acetate fraction was furtherpurified on a second silica gel open column (4.5 cm i.d x 16 cmusing n-hexane and ethyl acetate as eluent with increasing con-centration of ethyl acetate. The final separation and purifica-tion of the active fraction was carried out by high performanceliquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection at
310 nm employing a LiChrospher 100CN (10 µm; 250 mm x10 mm) column, flow rate 4 mL/min, and mobile phase con-sisting of n-hexane and ethyl acetate in gradient mode. NMR,MS and FTIR analysis aiming at elucidating the toxic metabo-
lites structure was performed.


Keywords: Bergapten; biocides; coumarines; epoxybergamottin;
fruit flies; furanocoumarines; osthol

Cryonics:
              ON WAY TO RAISING THE DEAD?

                                 
ABSTRACT:

Today  technology   plays  a  vital  role  in  every  aspect  of  life. Increasing  standards  in  technology   in  many  fields , has  taken  man  today   to  high  esteem. But  the  present  available  technologies  are  unable  to  interact  with  the  atoms, such  a  minute  particles. Hence Nanotechnology  has  been  developing. Nanotechnology  is nothing  but  a  technology  which  uses  atoms  with  a  view  to  creating  a  desired  product. It  has  wider  applications  in  all  the  fields. The   important application  is  Cryonics..  Cryonics is nothing  but  an  attempt  of  raising  the  dead - making them alive. First  we   preserve  the  body  then  by  using  molecular  machines  based  nanotechnology  we  could  revive  the  patients  by  repairing  damaged  cells.
  In  this  technical  paper  we  would  like  to  discuss  cryonics, how  the  process  of  cryonics  goes on  and  why  nanotechnology  is  being  used  and  description  of  molecular  machines  which  has  the  capability  of  repairing  damaged  cells. Therefore Cryonics is an area in which most of the work is to be done in  future .

                           DEFLUORIDATION TECHNIQUES
                            -To Enhance The Human Life Better.

Abstract:

The universal solvent, water is a natural resource for sustaining life. Though water is available in abundance and a free gift of nature, chemical composition of surface or subsurface, geothermal or non – thermal of the region are the prime factors on which the suitability of the water for domestic, industrial or agriculture purpose depends. Most of the population in India is illiterate and not aware of water born diseases. Major problems being faced in certain parts of the country are due to the presence of excess fluoride, arsenic and nitrate contents in groundwater .The 1984 WHO guidelines suggested an optimum value for fluorine in drinking water should be 1.5mg / litre. Fluoride at lower levels causes dental cavities while poisonous at higher levels causing dental fluorosis, skeletal damage. This paper provides a literary review on the latest physical and chemical fluoride removal techniques employed world wide for optimum removal in drinking water. An attempt is made on reviewing comparative study on de-fluorination techniques by impregnation of metal ions such as ZrOCl2, CaO, Alum , CaCl2 and Borax in activated charcoal suggesting the most promising techniques. Global scenario of fluoride removal techniques and various health hazards are also presented.


Key words: Defluoridation, fluorosis, nalgonda technique, Activated alumina, Zirconium ion. 
                               Development of Bio-ethanol Production from
                                             Waste Potatoes                          
ABSTRACt
Ethanol fermented from renewable sources for fuel or fuel additives are known as bio-ethanol. Additionally, the ethanol from biomass-based waste materials is considered as bio-ethanol. Currently, there is a growing interest for ecologically sustainable bio-fuels. In Finland bio-ethanol is already used as additive in some gasoline products instead of toxic MTBE and TAME. Bio-ethanol production from potatoes is based on the utilization of waste potatoes. Waste potatoes are produced from 5-20 % of crops as by-products in potato cultivation. At present, waste potatoes are used as feedstock only in one plant in Finland. Oy Shaman Spirits Ltd in Tyrnävä (near Oulu) uses 1.5 million kilograms of waste potatoes per year. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop different analytical methods for bio-ethanol production from waste potatoes and to study the effect of potato cultivar on bio-ethanol production.

E - WASTE
    (Electronic Waste Management)

ABSTRACT:

Our present paper describes about the electronic waste management of present scenario in the world. The electronics industry is the world’s largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry. The increase in consumption rates of electrical and electronic products and higher obsolescence rates are leading to growing generation of e-waste (waste electronic and electrical equipment or WEEE).

In India, recycling of e-waste is almost entirely left to the informal sector which does not have adequate means to handle either the increasing quantities or certain process, leading to intolerable risk of human health and the environment.

The main topic discusses about the generation of e-waste and their management in the present world. Presently the computer makers of SONY, DELL, IBM and Hewlett Packard, Panasonic and Sharp have developed their own recycling programs.
Electrospun nanofibers: solving global issues

ABSTRACT:

Nanofibers are able to form a highly porous mesh and their large surface-to-volume ratio improves performance for many applications. Electrospinning has the unique ability to produce nanofibers of different materials in various fibrous assemblies. The relatively high production rate and simplicity of the setup makes electrospinning highly attractive to both academia and industry. A variety of nanofibers can be made for applications in energy storage, healthcare, biotechnology, environmental engineering, and defense and security.
        
ENERGY   AND   ENVIRONMENT
                   HELIUM3  - THE  FUTURE  FUEL

ABSTRACt

One of the problems facing the world today is  providing  an adequate, safe, reliable energy supply that meets growing residential & commercial needs. By the year 2050 it is estimated that world population will cross 10 billion & the energy demands increase by 8 folds. So it is time for a search for alternate energy resources.One of the alternative energy source is Helium3, an isotope of Helium. Two helium3 atoms (or) one Deuterium and one Helium3 atom are fused in a thermonuclear reactor to produce normal Helium and energy.This liberated energy can be used in many ways. Scientists said that Helium3 is a perfect fuel source, extremely potent, nonpolluting, with virtually no radioactive byproduct. Proponents claim that it is the fuel of 21st century. One ton of helium 3 is worth about 5 billion dollars in energy terms. Scientists estimate there are about 1 million tons of He3 present on the moon, enough to power the world for thousands of years. Energy calculations suggest that the energy gained from He3 mined on the moon and shipped back to earth would be 250 times that would be used to obtain itIn this paper we will see  advantages of using He3 as  a fuel over other fuels, extracting of He3, Characteristics of D-He3  Fusion power Plants, uses of He3 .

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS AND THEIR GENETIC  MODIFICATION

 
ABSTRACT:

The derivation of embryonic stem cells from mice and the development of techniques that allow for targeted manipulation of its genome have allowed for the generation of mice with desired mutations. Principles of specific gene modifications in mice by the use of derivation and establishment of mouse embryonic stem cells and techniques that allowed site-specific modification of sequences within the genome of these cells. Such cells where then used to and generate animals that had their genome altered specifically three shared the prize equally. To date, almost half of the genes in the mouse genome have been modified using their techniques. This has led to better understanding of mammalian physiology, developments and diseases.
                                                                                       

OVERVIEW:
               
            Stem cells, particularly embryonic stem cells, have been the subject of both medical and public discussion for a variety of reasons-from the promise of regeneration within the body, to providing an inexhaustible source of various cell types/tissues for repair. It is important to emphasize that these cells originated from experiments primarily designed to dissect the mechanisms of mammalian development.

                                         Embryonic stem cells can form mixtures of the three germ layers i.e. endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm tissue. The contribution of ES cells to any particular tissue is random and also determined by the number of ES cells injected into the blastocyst. Genetic manipulation of cells can be done in many ways , from growing them in mutagens to obtain random mutations


KEY WORDS:
                    Embryonic stem cells: embryonic stem cells
                    Gene modifications: manipulation of an organism’s gene

FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: AN APPROACH
FOR GASTRIC RETENTION
ABSTRACT
 Floating drug delivery systems(FDDS) is a topic of current intrest in the design of drug delivery systems.FDDS  principle mechanism is flotation by means of which they achieve gastric retention.Floating drug delivery systems prolong the gastric residence time,control the drug release from the dosage form and they have been useful in increasing the bioavailability, reduce drug wastage,local drug delivery to stomach and proximal part of small intestine.The approaches in designing are single unit and multiple unit approach.They are two types of FDDS, effervescent and non-effervescent systems.These systems on interaction with gastric fluids CO2 liberated by effervescent systems and air in non-effervescent systems is entrapped in swollen hydrocolloids and provide buoyancy to the system.Swollen gel like structure acts as reservoir and aids in sustained drug delivery.Some of the drugs formulated as FDDS are diazepam,aluminium magnesium antacid,ketoprofen, nicardipine etc.
 Future Materials for ‘The Shrinking Chip
                                          A Kalyan Rohit, Sumit Rathi

ABSTRACT
Imagine a 90 % reduction in energy consumption from millions of television sets; imagine that there’s no need to wait for the computer to boot once switched on; imagine storage of 10 hours of finest quality uncompressed video on an area of the size of a stamp; imagine that PCs are replaced by quantum computers which are more secure. All of the above may sound like science fiction; but these are some applications where Nanoelectronics can be of great importance and value.

Nanoelectronics, indicates use of nanotechnology on electronic components particularly transistors. Although the term nanotechnology is generally defined as utilizing technology less than 100nm in size; it often refers to nanomaterial transistor devices whose inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively. The objective of the paper is to present information with regard to the new materials (nanomaterials) that may replace the existing ones in near future; and also provide insights into present manufacturing processes and applications of these materials.

Keywords
Nanoelectronics, carbon nanotubes, nanobud.

             Genetically modified animals in drug discovery
                          
ABSTRACT
Genetically modified (GM) animals have consistently been used to qualify newer drugs for study in human clinical trials; as they have been instrumental in defining newer drug targets and designing novel therapeutic strategies.  Methods to develop transgenic animals, along with their plausible applications in clinical research and human therapeutics have been discussed. One of the novel methods employed in developing these animals involves fusion of human sperm to mouse egg’s plasma membrane.  The present article focuses on the use of such transgenic strains, in biological evaluation of drugs used in neurodegenerative disorders like schizophrenia, alzheimers and cancers of breast & prostate gland. These animals can also be exploited for the production of monoclonal antibodies, possessing low immunogenicity. Validating the target, generating animal models of disease using gene transfer methods, drugs tested till date using such models and the limitations of such methods form the scope of this paper.

 HIGH TURBIDITY REMOVAL BY MAGNETITE PARTICLES
          
ABSTRACT:
         The high turbidity of raw water during the rain storm period has made the water treatment plants failed to supply applicative water in recent years. How to improve the treating capacity of water treatment plants is an important issue at present. In this study, high turbidity water was effectively treated by magnetite (Fe3O4) particles .After magnetization, magnetite particles can reduce turbidity from 9600 NTU to 20 NTU . Furthermore , magnetite particles are suitable for the pH ranges of drinking water from pH = 6.0  to pH = 9.0 and an external magnetic field applied during sedimentation increases the removal rate . In addition , the recycle and reuse of magnetite particles were investigated . Magnetite particles were successfully regenerated by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB) and the effective used times of magnetite particles was five times.

Keywords:
            High turbidity raw water , Magnetite particles , Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB).

Implementing Nano Robots in Ventilation & In Blood Sugar Detection.

ABSTRACT:

             Nano-biotechnology is now becoming an emerging field that is going to bring a
lot of changes in the current century of technological revolution. It is a one part ofNANO- TECHNOLOGY. Apart from its participation in all fields, the part of nanos inhuman science and medicine is large. Nanomedicine is the process of diagnosing, and improving human health, using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of thehuman body. Most symptoms such as fever and itching have specific biochemical causestreating, preventing disease and traumatic injury, of relieving pain, and of preservingthat can also be managed, reduced, and eliminated using the appropriate injectednanorobots. Our paper mainly concentrated on implementing Nano robots in detecting humanphysiology. Thispaper mainly concentrates on implementing nano robots in medicalfield. In this paper we have two ideas. One is using nano robots to exhale oxygen andcarbon dioxide according to the human pressure. The nano robots are called as artificialred cells. The second part of our paper deals with introducing nanosensors andnanorobots in detecting Human blood sugar level. These nanorobots are Embedded withmobile phones and the status of the patient can be read from remote places. These nanoparticles that reduce the size of microelectronic components will become a major part inhuman medicines, which may make this entire world to hide in a single chip.

                           INVITRO REGENERATION OF HEART
ABSTRACT
Heart is the principal organ in all mammals that pumps the blood through out various parts. Heart failure is one of the major causes of death in several countries. Myocardial infarction leads to the permanent heart failure because of the extensive cellular damage and incapability of the cardiac tissue to repair the damaged portion. In the case of end stage heart failure, transplantation is the only solution. But this process is not easily achievable due to lack of donors and also due to the complications in the immuno-suppressive medications.The current paper tries to project the method of regenerating a heart tissue under the laboratory conditions. This comes under a branch of tissue engineering called Cardiac Tissue Engineering. Further the paper tries to review the success achieved in regenerating the heart tissue and the heart valves and blood vessels in the laboratory, at various institutions. The paper also focuses on the methodology usually followed for engineering the heart under artificial conditions.The paper then concludes with the future prospects of this heart regeneration.
Necessary Components for Engineering:For engineering or regenerating any part of cardiac tissue, the components of prime importance are Cells, Scaffold, Bioreactor, and Medium.Constraints:There are some constraints involved in engineering the heart which have to be taken care of. These include the supply of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors evenly to all the growing cells seeded on the scaffold, which otherwise may lead to cell necrosis..Achievements:A fully functional cardiac tissue was developed by the scientists at NASA. A tissue engineered cardiac patch when introduced into the right ventricle of rat, showed the rhythmic contractions of heart. Similarly the heart valves and the blood vessels were also developed.
Future Outlook:
The ability to regenerate the heart is indeed a miracle. It answers the many incurable problems associated with the heart failures. This process of cardiovascular engineering, thus, has enormous potential to improve the quality of life of many suffering.

It’s Getting Really Hot! Or Is It?

ABSTRACT

Our planet, ‘The Earth’ had its share of ups and downs relating to weather; in fact it has been harmonically cooling down and heating up which is quite known to everyone as Global Meltdown and Global warming for the past billion years approximately. Ironically, there are scientists who are called ‘skeptics’ for having  raised questions about the validity of Global warming in the past few years, by a demographic of people supporting the idea of a Global “cataclysmic” raise in temperature. No one can say for certain ‘if global warming will result in more clouds or fewer clouds’. However, something we all can agree on is this: whether it's cold or whether it's hot, there will be weather, whether or not.
In this paper we would like to show that (providing facts and data wherever required) the science that supports or does not support the theory behind global warming is so incomplete that no reasonable conclusions can be drawn on how to solve the “problem” (or if the “problem” even exists).

Keywords
Global warming, temperature, sea level, Antarctica, Solar variation.

Light Emitting Polymers PPV (Poly Phenylene Vinylene)
ABSTRACT:

From time when first synthetic polymers like nylon were produced, the application of polymers in varies fields have grown steadily. In 1960’s it was first reported that some plastic polymers such as ANTHRACENE uncharacteristically conduct electricity, and an effect light was emitted. This generation of light due to black body radiation is known as the phenomena of ELECTRLUMINESENCE. The area of light emitting polymers (LEPs), has been extensively worked upon since dramatic progress as been made since the early 1990’s mainly by researches based at CAVENDISH LABORATORY Cambridge university .This paper aims to high lights the main milestones made in this field, explain the current underlying quantum theory and highlights the future in this revolutionary subject.
Keywords: Electrluminesence, Conjugated polymers, Quantum efficiency, Work Function, Photoluminesces.



 Low-temperature SOFCs using biomass-produced gases as fuels
ABSTRACT:

The electromotive force (e.m.f) is calculated for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on doped ceria electrolytes using biomass-produced gases (BPG, 14.7% CO, 14.2% CO2, 15.3% H2, 4.2% CH4, and 51% N2) as fuels and air as oxidant. It reveals that the BPG derived e.m.f. is very close to hydrogen when doped ceria is used as the electrolyte. A 35-lm-thick samaria-doped ceria based single cell was tested between 450 and 650 _C using BPG as fuel. Maximum power density of about 700 mW cm)2 was achieved at 650 _C. The open-circuit voltage at 450 _C was 0.96 V, close to the calculated value. However, the cell power density using BPG as fuel was relatively lower than that using humidified hydrogen (3% H2O), and close to that using humidified methane (3% H2O). Impedance measurements indicate that the relatively lower power output may be attributed to the high anode–electrolyte interfacial polarization resistance when BPG is used as fuel

MEMBRANE REACTOR CONCEPT
(FOR THE METHANOL SYNTHESIS)

ABSTRACT:

The important and the expensive, steps in a chemical process are the chemical reactor and the separation of the product stream. Both the process economics and the efficient use of natural resources could be improved by the combination of these two operations into a single unit operation, leading to potential savings in energy and reactant consumption and reduced by-product formation. One promising way to accomplish thiscombination is the use of membrane separation and catalytic reaction together in a multifunctional reactor. The membrane used in membrane reactor can resist high temperature and chemically harsh environment. This paper focuses on a membrane reactor that will produce ultra pure hydrogen (CO in ppm level) with optimum consumption of pure oxygen and CO as a by-product that can be captured and sequestrated to minimize greenhouse effects. Oxygen permeable membranes will typically act as a distributor for oxygen thereby avoiding premixing of feed and minimizing explosion hazards while hydrogen membranes will almost act a sextractors for hydrogen and shifting water gas equilibrium thereby minimizing CO ineffluent.

Keywords: membrane separation, catalytic reaction, multifunctional reactor, oxygen permeable membranes, hydrogen membranes, water gas equilibrium

“MINING OF URANIUM FROM SEA WATER”
                                  -An eco-friendly trend in nuclear energy.

ABSTRACT: 
                                                   
“Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.” Hence every part of theUniverse is more or less associated with energy. Of course, in the last few years most Of the natural resources and fossil fuels are getting exhausted, thus resulting in the Energy crisis. Hence it is necessary to explore new sources of energy in order to meetthe future demands of it.To say in simple words, we need to find ways for:“MORE ENERGY FROM LESS  SOURCES.” -an eco-friendly processing. Some of these sources are wind, tidal, nuclear,etc. Among all of them, nuclear type is considered to be the most powerful & anapplauding source, which is basically obtained from the ores of uranium and thorium.This may once again lead to mining Operations, which are not eco friendly.Hence a very new method called “extracting  Uranium from seawater has come into light. This method uses “the process of adsorption in which amidoxime fiber is used a san adsorbent.      ”  The setup consists of the hanging of the adsorbent cages insea water by which URANIUM & OTHER HEAVY METALS  are adsorbed in it. But there is a great misconception that the production of nuclear energy from uranium and thorium is highly radioactive and may harm the environment with its adverse effect. But it can be eradicated by this method, but not to a great extent. This paper gives a brief description on the production of nuclear energy from an eco-friendly process -  “URANIUM  FROM  SEA WATER”  which is a modern trend  in nuclear  processing with all its basics ,applications, recent advances  and future aspects.

        Modelling of waste water management system

ABSTRACT

The wastewater treatment system is generally composed of several facilities and stages such as collection of wastewater, its transportation to treatment station where treatments like primary, secondary and advanced treatments are given for reclamation of water. These facilities and treatments Interacts with each other and decides the cost of the managing the system at different locations.
The system is inherently dynamic, because all the facilities and treatments to be provided at all the locations will generally be in different operating period of time and hence it is necessary to consider the evolution in the production and treatment of waste. A model is presented here that considers the location of treatment system based of waste on quality, quantity and treatment

Keywords:
Wastewater,Modeling,transferstation,wastewater treatment

                      Review paper on NANOFLUIDS

            
ABSTRACT:

Suspended nano particles in conventional fluids are called nanofluids. .Recent development of nanotechnology brings out a new heat transfer coolant called 'nanofluids'. These fluids exhibit larger thermal properties than conventional coolants (water, ethylene glycol etc.) due to the presence of suspended nanosized particles in them such as Al2O3, Cu, CuO etc.Nanofluids can be considered to be the next-generation heat transfer fluids because they offer exciting new possibilities to enhance heat transfer performance compared to pure liquids.Nanofluids are attracting a great deal of interest with their enormous potential to provide enhanced performance properties, particularly with respect to heat transfer. Micrometer-sized particle-fluid suspensions exhibit no such dramatic enhancement. They are expected to have superior properties compared to conventional heat transfer fluids, as well as fluids containing micro-sized metallic particles.
 In this review paper an attempt has been made to cover the chemical and physical methods for synthesizing nanofluids, explaining the techniques for creating a stable suspension of nanoparticles.The much larger relative surface area of nanoparticles, compared to those of conventional particles, not only significantly improves heat transfer capabilities, but also increases the stability of the suspensions.

The key topics discussed are:
   - Synthesis of nanofluids, including dispersion techniques and characterization methods
   - Thermal conductivity and thermo-physical properties
   - Heat transfer applications in microelectronics, fuel cells, and vehicle engines


                  NANOTECHNOLOGY AND SUSTAINABLE

                                   DEVELOPMEnt

ABSTRACT:
The increasing demand for energy for the burgeoning and industrialized world and the mandate on environmental quality( low Nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, noise emissions etc) have become today’s challenge for the scientists and researchers. Without a technological breakthrough, the projected energy demand will dramatically impact the quality and sustainability of life on earth. The application and commercialization of ‘Nanotechnology’ seem to be an important technological advancement for the next decade to give an optimal solution to the conflict between energy demand for an increasingly industrialized world and protection of environmental resources.


Novel Technologies for Waste Water Treatment
MARS - EMB – SBS

ABSTRACT :

Waste water is generated by the chemical process industries from a wide range of sources .A typical site would have contributions to waste water from rain water, plant equipment wash down, scrubber systems, liquid ring vacuum systems and process streams.
Most of these contributions typically contain low quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), or toxic organic pollutants that have to be removed from the waste water.A number of technologies that have been developed recently and applied at process scale to treat point source waste waters are discussed here. They include:
Membrane Aromatic Recovery System (MARS), a system for recovering aromatic compounds with acid/base functionality, such as phenol, aniline or cresol which allows them to be reused in the process.
Extractive Membrane Bio reactor (EMB), a bioreactor technology which allows for biodegradation of the organic components of a waste stream by separating them from toxic inorganic components.Stripper/Bio Scrubber (SBS), a bioreactor technology for treating wastewaters contaminated with VOCs; and coalescer technology, applicable to wastewaters contaminated with a dispersion of immiscible droplets that are too small to separate using standard fiber coalescing elements.

Keywords: VOCs Volatile Organic Compounds, Industrial Effluents, Membrane Separation technique, Bio scrubbers, Bio degradability, Green Technology.

Reference:[ I chem. E Journal  “tce - the chemical engineer”]
We acknowledge the authors Lina Christopoulopu and Andrew Boam for their
extensive work.


                             NANOTECHNOLOGY :NANOIMPRINT
LITHOGRAPHY


KEYWORDS: Nanotechnology, Nanoimprint lithography, quantum cryptography, soft lithography, photo lithography, Nanoelectronics, photolithography.           
ABSTRACT
Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) is a surface patterning technique that, in the recent literature, has been shown to provide resist line width resolutions down to about 5 nm. Essentially the surface pattern of a hard mold is replicated into a thermoplastic resist material at elevated temperature and pressure.  Alternative resist materials, such as UV-sensitive precursor resins, can also be employed.  Given an optically transparent mold, pattern replication can be achieved by exposing the precursor to UV light through the mold under elevated pressure.  This imprinting mode is often referred to as UV-NIL. 
 Compared to other nanofabrication techniques such as e-beam lithography, x-ray lithography, and immersion-assisted photolithography, NIL benefits from higher throughput and lower capital equipment start-up costs.  Furthermore, the NIL process is very flexible.  It can accommodate a large variety of polymeric materials and commercially available resists.  It is also compatible with either stiff or flexible substrate materials particularly silicon, glass, metal sheets and films as well as plastics.  The many advantages of NIL make it well-disposed towards the fabrication of semiconductors, micro- and nano-electro-mechanical devices, optical components and biological or chemical templates. 
Nanomedicine


Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines) to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body Research in nanomedicine will allow for a better understanding of the functioning of the human body at molecular and nanometric level and it will thus give us the possibility to intervene better at pre-symptomatic, acute or chronic stage of illnesses.The practical knowledge is aimed at designing a new era of  prevention and cure which incude applications such as activity monitors, chemotherapy, nanorobots, pacemakers, BIOCHIPS s, OTC tests, insulin pumps, nebulizers, needleless injectors, hearing aids, medical flow sensors and blood pressure, glucose monitoring and drug delivery systems.NANOROBOTS-  Most medicines today, tend to destroy normal cells along with the bacteria and viruses. With nanorobots ( nano-machines or miniature surgeons) we will be able to identify pathogens in body fluids, and destroy them without destroying the human immune system. Building nanorobots may indeed be very expensive, but the end product may help cure diseases like HIV/AIDS(Human immune virus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome) which can only be prevented today and not cured.Precautions to restrict its artificial intelligence to level upto which we may be able to have full control over it and not let it control our body instead must be taken. Inhibitor chips are  built into them so that there can be no connection between the human nervous system and the nanorobots.  imaging), produce exceptional images of tumor sites. These nanoparticles are much brighter than organic dyes and only need one light source for excitation. The use of fluorescent quantum dots could produce a higher contrast image and at a lower cost than today's organic dyes used as contrast media. The downside, however, is that quantum dots are usually made of quite toxic elements. Another nanoproperty, high surface area to volume ratio, allows many functional groups to be attached to a nanoparticle, which can seek out and bind to certain tumourcells. Additionally, the small size of nanoparticles (10 to 100 nanometers), allows them to preferentially accumulate at tumor sites (because tumors lack an effective lymphatic drainage system) Another highly attractive area of nanomedicine is diagnostics at nanoscale. The aim is to identify a disease at the earliest possible stage. Ideally already a single cell with ill behaviour would be detected and cured or eliminated. New concepts for regenerative medicine give hope to many patients with organ failure or severe injuries.Here are a few examples of how nanomedicine could transform common medical procedures:
  • Diagnostic nanomachines could be employed to monitor the internal chemistry of the body. Mobile nanorobots, equipped with wireless transmitters, could circulate in the blood and lymph systems, and send out warnings when chemical imbalances occur or worsen.
           

         Nanomedicines: Current Status and Future
                                   Oppurtunities                                      


                                                                 ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the very promising fields of biomedical research in the last few decades. There is increasing anticipation that nanotechnology, as applied to medicine, will bring significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. It refers to the interactions of cellular and molecular components and engineered materials. To achieve efficient drug delivery it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signaling involved in pathobiology of the disease under consideration. Nanotechnology may hold the key to controlling many devastating diseases like cancer which is one of the most challenging diseases today. In the fight against the pain, suffering, and death due to cancer, nanotechnology will allow earlier diagnosis and even prevention of malignancy at premalignant stages, in addition to providing multimodality treatment not possible with current conventional techniques. Modern trends of drugs are being developed to improve the anti-tumor effect and reduce the adverse side effects.Nanoparticles of cadmium selenide when exposed to ultraviolet light glow.When injected, they seep into cancer tumors. The surgeon can see the glowing tumor, and use it as a guide for more accurate tumor removal. Like nanoshells coated with gold to kill cancer tumors in mice. In future herbal nanoparticles are gaining importance in cancer therapy. A widespread understanding of these new technologies can provide essential breakthroughs in the fight against cancer. as anticancer treatments is growing rapidly. Indeed, there is widespread anticipation that application of such nanotechnologies in medicine will bring the paradigm shift needed to improve both cancer diagnosis and therapy. Polymer-protein conjugates, and polymer-drug conjugates represent two new classes of anticancer drug that are already showing significant promise, both as single agents and as components of combination therapy. Nanomedicines are still facing hurdles related to lack of an inadequate funding structure and to potential difficulties in gaining regulatory approval but the current status of nanotechnological studies on cancer is gaining importance and future opportunities are increasing.
  •  

NANOPARTICLES AS TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY
SYSTEMS
                              
ABSTRACT:
Nanotechnology is a branch of applied science that deals with matters on atomic and molecular scale. This technology gives us more control over the properties of nano-scale structures so that they can be designed for more effective diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. The particle size of the polymeric nanoparticle is in the nanometer range (10-1000 nm) and is dependent on the method of preparation employed. Nanoparticle exerts its site-specific drug delivery by avoiding the reticuloendothelial system, utilizing enhanced permeability and retention effect and tumor-specific targeting. These carriers are designed in such a way that they are independent in the environments and selective at the pharmacological site.Delivery methods using nanoparticle are highlighted including both degradabnon-degradable polymers. The preparation techniques include emulsion polymerization, micelle polymerization, desolvation of macromolecule, emulsion-solvent evaporation methods Detection of cancer at an early stage is important to improve the treatment efficiency. This highly sensitive technology can help us in screening the cells and tissues accurately If the particles are larger than 200 nanometres, they will be cleared away by blood streams very quickly and won’t have time to attack cancer.Anti-cancer drugs are put inside a nano-scale shell that is made of fat. This shows that in one sense, nanotechnology impacts drug manufacturing as well.
CONCLUSION:The nanoparticle have the capability to reverse multidrug resistance a major problem in chemotherapy. Nanoparticle appears to be a unique viable approach for combating problems, such as poor bioavailability, to avoid reticuloendothelial system and to achieve site-specific delivery to the tumor site.
                   
                    Nano structured electronic and magnetic
                                               Materials
                      
ABSTRACT

Research and development in nano structured materials is one of the most intensely studied areas in science as a result of concerted R&Defforts nanostructured electronican magnetic materials have achieved commercial success. Specific examples of novel industrially important   and magnetic materials are provided. Advantages of nano crystalline magnetic materials in the context of both materials and devices are discussed . Several high technology examples of the use of nano-structured magnetic materials are presented. Methods of processing nano structured materials are described and the examples of sol gel, rapid solidification and
powder injection moulding as potential processing methods for making nano structured materials are outlined. Some opportunities and challenges arediscussed.

Keywords   Nano materials ; electronic materials; magnetic materials ; magnetic media;
materials processing; powder


                              Nanotechnology-novel drug delivery system

ABSTRACT
Nanotechnology-novel drug delivery system involves the theme of introduction of nanoparticles/nanomedicines to enhance the bio-distribution, pharmacokinetics, therapuetical activity of drug. Nanotechnology enhancing its way mainly in two approaches, i.e; bottom-up and top-down approaches .Nanotechnology in the emerging life of science has gained many applications in the field of medicines, drug delivery, chemical engineering, diagnosis and so on. The drug delivery procedure is mainy included the increased properties of bio-distribution/availiability and its action on morbid regions. Drug delivery system include many modification which increases the way of release and action on cancer cells. The modifications include encapsulation, release, illumination, target and action of nanoparticles on receptors. The main object behind the nanotechnology involves the potent use of drug/material than ever to get better performance.

                                  Non conventional Energy Resources.
             
ABSTRACT:
Problems with present energy system: 
One of the major sources of power is the engines. These are presently used for transport and for other applications. The fuels to these engines are nothing but the products obtained from fractional distillation of petroleum. But the petroleum reserves get depleted day by day. More over their cost is more and hazardous emissions lead to the green house effect which in turn leads to global warming. Incomplete combustion produces carbon monoxide which depletes the ozone layer. These are the problems our environment faces today.
Alternate fuel to solve the problem: 
            As engineers we must provide some suitable solution for this. Many solutions like alternate fuels (jetropa oils) are developing. Another area which is more hopeful is this fuel cell. This paper discusses about this fuel cells in a way that it gives a good knowledge about fuel cells for people who read this. Since there are more kinds of fuel cells, this paper has been narrowed down to PEM fuel cell which uses only hydrogen as a fuel to produce power.Inference:  
            Hydrogen is available in plenty. So no fear that this may end up as like petroleum. The bye product is nothing other than water. So there is no hazard to environment. Same water can be used to produce hydrogen by passing current into water. It does not create any noise pollution as like a generator
           
 OPTIMISATION OF BIO DIESEL FROM   VEGETABLE OIL

ABSTRACT :
Biodiesel is gaining more and more importance as an attractive fuel due to the depleting fossil fuel resources. Developing the technology to produce and use biodiesel will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact and establish safe, clean, sustainable alternatives to petroleum. Biodiesel can be a very successful fuel due to the fact that it reduces engine wear and there are an infinite number of materials to produce it. Chemically biodiesel is monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feed stock like vegetable oils and animal fats. It is produced by transesterification in which, oil or fat is reacted with a monohydric alcohol in presence of a catalyst. The environmental benefits of biodiesel are that it reduces carbon di oxide emissions upto 80%. It reduces exhaust smoke upto 75% and produces 100% less sulfur dioxide than petroleum based diesels. There are different methods available to produce biodiesel. Transesterification is the most common process is affected by the mode of reaction condition, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, type and amount of catalysts, reaction time and temperature and purity of reactants. Our objective is to study the effect of temperature and catalyst on the yield of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil.
­­­­­


    OZONATION-AN INNOVATIVE TOOL  FOR TEXTILE
                          EFFLUENT TREATMENT

ABSTRACT:
   Our paper deals with the importance of introducing ozonation process in the textile effluent treatment. In a textile processing industry, total dissolved salts (TDS) is a major pollutant parameter that decides the mode of disposal and the degree of effluent treatment. So, we are in need of an appropriate technology that can convert the challenges into opportunities. Ozone is the answer to all the pollutional problems associated with textile processing. The ozone treatment is removing the color and eliminates the sludge generation and also improves the biodegradability of waste water.  So as to enable the processing units to become profitable and competitive without deteriorating the quality  of our environment.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND STUDY OF PRESSURE DROP IN MIXED SIZE PACKED BEDS
 

ABSTRACT:

In this study, the performance of an improved random-dumped packed bed for effective inter-phase heat and mass transfer is discussed. The packed bed is a plurality of a first packing size substantially uniformly mixed and co-mingled with a plurality of the suitable second larger packing size. The mixed bed so formed provides the additional surface area and mass transfer capacity of the plurality of the added first smaller packing size while maintaining the gas and liquid limiting flow capacity of a bed of the second larger packing size absent the smaller first packing size.

KEYWORDS: Pressure drop, Limiting flow capacity, Superficial air velocity, Back mixing, wall effect, filamentary packing



                               Polymer Electrolyte Membrane
                                          (PEM)Fuel cell


ABSTRACT:

Most of the automobiles use fossil fuels such as petrol, diesel which on combustion gives harmful gases released like carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen carbons, and carbon dioxide that cause air pollution and deplete the ozone layer since gasoline is a finite energy source, there is a necessity for another efficient and cheap energy source. Ideally, this energy source should be unlimited in its supply and friendly to the environment.Many alternatives have been considered like the use of batteries and solar power to power cars. Battery are of limited use. So the best alternative is the fuel cell. Fuel Cells have unusual electrical characteristics which makes them more efficient and eco friendly. There are several types of fuel cells like alkaline fuel cells, Molten Carbonate, Phosphoric Acid fuel cell, Direct Methanol, Polymer electrolyte Membrane fuel cell. But Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells—also called Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells—deliver high power density and offer the advantages of low weight and volume, compared to other fuel cells. It is now the fuel cell type most favored by auto companies as a replacement for the internal combustion engines.In this paper, we are showing an approach to the use of Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell as an alternative to conventional fuels. It gives a detailed description on working of PEM, features of PEM fuel cell membrane, explores the application of PEM in the diversified fields of Transportation, Industrial, Residential Power and Aerospace. We have also described the advanced materials for fuel cells.

                               POLYMER-MADE LED
      A technology by chemical and electronic engg  

 Polymer-Made   LIGHT EMITTING DIODES

ABSTRACT

This topic is related to the recent development of display technologies using OLED. Now days every one wants their design to be so reliable and power saving. OLED technology is providing these kinds of requirements in display technologies. This is the most efficient technology of displays. Hence the world famous electronic company Sony promised its next projects is going to be developed using OLED displays.
    In this paper we are going to deal the key aspects of this display technology. They emit radiation as combination of hole and electron. Some of its types basing on structures are discussed. The problem of making OLEDs and methods involved in manufacturing them are also discussed 


                             POLYMERS  BIODEGRADATION
   
ABSTRACT

        Polymeric materials are now used in all sectors of life as very durable and enormously stable products. Polymers form the backbones of plastic materials. During the past decade the intense use of long lasting polymers for short lived applications (packaging, catering, surgery) has created serious problems with waste and are a significant source of environmental pollution, harming wild life when they are dispersed in the nature.
As a result, many researchers are investing time in modifying traditional materials to make them more user-friendly. As most of the polymers are resistant to degradation their disposal is fuelling an international drive for the development of biodegradable polymers.         
Usage of polymers in daily life
 
      Biodegradation is a reasonable target for the complete assimilation and disappearance of an article leaving no toxic or environmentally harmful residue Break down of polymer materials is by microbial action, photo degradation or chemical degradation; all three methods are classified under biodegradation, as the end products are stable and found in nature.Biopolymers like polycaprolactone, polyhydroxylalkanoates, polylacticacids, poly acrylates, gelatin, polyesters, and polysaccharides are now in the market at an advanced stage of development. Biodegradable polymers have been focused on three major areas: medical-drug delivery, surgical sutures, bone fixation devices, tissue repair; agricultural-controlled release of agricultural chemicals; consumer goods packaging.                      
           The positive future of biopolymer industry lies in using renewable resource feedstock   sources for environmental benefits. Time is of the essence for biodegradable polymer development, and should make a clear case for being considered as clean-green polymers.
Keywords: Polymers, environmentalpollution, Biodegradation, renewable resource feedstock, drug delivery.
Reference:
  1. Progress in Polymer Science -Volume 23, November 1998 (pp. 1273-1335)

2.     Biodegrable Polymers and Plastics, by Emo Chiellini, Roberto solaro, published by Springer, 2002.


Potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease using curcumin
                        
            
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by the impairment of cognitive function in elderly individuals. This disease was first discovered in 1907 by Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German medical researcher who described a unique and destructive pathology in his patient’s brain. Today Alzheimer’s is a ravaging illness that robs its victims not only of their health but also their personal relationships. AD is considered a form of dementia, a brain disorder that seriously affects a person’s ability to carry out daily activities. AD primarily involves the parts of the brain that control thought, memory and language. AD is characterized by loss of neurons and synapses in cerebral cortex and certain sub cortical regions. This loss results in gross atropy of the affected regions including the degeneration of temporal lobe and parietal lobe and parts of frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by two key abnormalities in the brain amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Plaques are dense, mostly insoluble deposits of amyloid-beta proteins and cellular material from one part of the nerve cell to another. In Alzheimer's disease, however, the tau protein is abnormal and the microtubule structures collapse. Plaques are made up of small peptides, 39–43 amino acids in length, called beta-amyloid. Amyloid is a general term for protein fragments that the body produces normally. Beta-amyloid is a fragment of a protein that is snipped from another protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP), a transmembrane protein that penetrates through the neuron's membrane. In Alzheimer’s sufferers, tau’s function is transformed abnormally so that it twists into pairs of helical filaments that collect in tangles. When this occurs, the microtubules do not function correctly and disintegrate. The resulting collapse of the neurons’ transport system eventually impairs communication between nerve cells, and causes them to die.      . Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves amyloid beta accumulation, oxidative damage, and inflammation, and risk is reduced with increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory consumption. Curcumin has long been prized in Curcumin’s ability to scavenge free radicals and suppress inflammatory cytokines has impressed scientists who are seeking ways to prevent and treat Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Curcumin helps to avert the insidious evolution of amyloid beta plaques in the brain.  Curcumin directly binds to small {beta}-amyloid species to block aggregation and fibril formation. In the treatment of AD, NSAIDS are also used but have certain side-effects like kidney-toxicity which are not seen while using curcumin. The inflammation and destructive oxidation inherent in Alzheimer’s are why antioxidants like curcumin may be so effective in preventing progression of the disease..

     Radiometric Study on Bioaccumulation of Gold by Hesperidin Extracted from Orange peel
Chemical Environmental Engg Green technology
                                 
ABSTRACT

             With the advent of civilization and exponentially growing industries, earth is being affected day to day. Mineral operating industries such as electronic device manufacturing often contaminate our water by discharging chromium, copper, lead, mercury. Many of these metals are highly toxic even at low concentrations and ultimately taken by human via food chain, and some metals have high economic importance, like gold. Thus the pre-concentration of useful metals from the polluted stream is urgent need. This paper briefly summarizes the demand of present day science to find alternative environmental friendly chemical methodologies even compromising with efficiency of process using plant secondary metabolites which contains such as hesperidin as flavonoid


     REUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS

ABSTRACT
          

Antibiotics are the first line of defence for many microbial diseases. The ability of these agents to cure infections with little or no harm to the host has helped to propagate their designation as “MIRACLE DRUGS”. From the time of discovery, they are being used extensively. These antibiotics are very expensive and they cost a fortune for the common man. These precious resources are being used for low value uses such as treating minor infections. This paper uses a framework based on epidemiological model of infection in which antibiotic effectiveness is treated as non renewable source.
The need of the hour is to reduce the cost of the antibiotics by reusing the expired and unused antibiotics. The expired antibiotics still contain some amount of active ingredient which can be reprocessed in a feasible manner. This may be done by processing the expired antibiotics by adding the necessary excipients and additional active ingredients for maintaining the required potency and shelf life of the resulting product as per the requirement so that it regains its original efficacy. For this purpose only stable, potent, non toxic and unused antibiotic tablets, capsules and injectable powders can be used. There are few common antibiotics which can be used for treating adults, pediatrics and veterinary purposes like amoxicillin, clavulanate, azithromycin, trimethoprim – sulphamethoxazole.
So the reprocessed antibiotics have to be produced in such a way that it can be used for treating adults, pediatrics, food animals and veterinary purposes in a suitable dosage form. Thereby this novel technology may be used as a cost reducing tool.

           SAND BIOREACTORS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT
ABSTRACT :
Renewable sources like sun, wind, water etc., can be captured and can be put into use in various forms.  Water is the universal solvent which can be used readily in many fields. Now a days water has been polluted due to the industries more over this pollution is mainly by reagents like vegetable oils, animal fats and grease. In order to remove pollutants many purification techniques are present. But, here we concern mainly about how to use sand bioreactors to renovate wastewaters that contain grease and fats.The sand bioreactor is the latest technological advancement affecting the industries. The primary goal of sand bioreactor management is to manage clogging. It responds well to gradual increase in wastewater loading. Therefore, they are very appropriate for new developments with a gradual build out rate. These are fixed-film biological treatment units. They are in the same category as trickling filters, rotating biological  contactors and are sometimes referred to as sand filters. Greases from restaurants and other food handling operations can quickly clog sand bioreactors. Removal of fats from wastewater through grease traps is currently recommended.   Naturally occurring microorganisms in the wastewater, sand, and even air, begin to colonize the surface of the sand grains with the first application of wastewater. Keeping groundwater and surface water out of the sand bioreactor is the single most important goal in construction. Sand bioreactor effluent is typically very clear with low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and ammonia levels. Small sand bioreactors can serve individual dwellings, or larger ones can be used to serve an entire community. If this scientific experiment is being carried out, no doubt the uses of wastewater treatment could be virtually unlimited. 

SIMULTANEOUS SIMULATION OF RISER AND
REGENERATOR IN FCC UNITS

ABSTRACT:
An integrated FCC simulator has been developed that can be effectively used for studying the performance of the reactor (riser) and the regenerator and also the interactions between them in a FCC unit. All the required physical properties of the feed and product hydrocarbons are calculated by taking ASTM D86 distillation curve and specific gravity for the feed and gasoline product and the light gas composition from user. A 4-lump model for cracking reactions is used in the riser model. The endothermic nature of cracking, the expansion of hydrocarbon vapors resulted from cracking and void fraction changes along the riser are all considered in the model equations. For the regenerator, a 2-phase fluidization model is used with 3 combustion reactions (coke burning, catalytic and homogeneous CO oxidation). The amount of residual coke in the regenerated catalyst, the effect of steam injection on after burning of CO, catalyst entrained to cyclones and flue gas composition can be evaluated accurately. A new method is developed for evaluating the effect of unburned coke on the regenerated catalyst on the riser performance.


SOME CONSIDERATIONS OF PROCESS IMPROVEMENT IN ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION FOR HIGHER YIELD OF HYDROGEN

ABSTRACT:
                      Biohydrogen assumes paramount importance as an energy source of the future mainly due to its efficient, renewable and clean-burning nature. Among various biological processes fermentation is a promising route to hydrogen production. It has simpler technology with higher rate of hydrogen evolution and wide range of substrate utilization. However, the inherent disadvantage of these processes is lower yield of H2. This is one of the major deterrents of the fermentative hydrogen production process towards its commercial acceptance. At most a maximum of 4 mol of hydrogen could be obtained per mole of glucose. This yield appears too low to be economically viable as a viable alternative to the existing chemical or electrochemical processes of hydrogen generation . Therefore, the ultimate goal and challenges for fermentative hydrogen research and development focus essentially on attaining higher yields of hydrogen.
Present paper explores two different approaches to improve the overall productivity of hydrogen in fermentation.. The overall scheme, known as two-stage fermentation, employs a combination of dark and photofermentation in a sequential batch mode. In the first stage, glucose is fermented to acetate, CO2 and H2 in an anaerobic dark fermentation by Enterobacter cloacae DM11. This is followed by a successive second stage where acetate is converted to H2 and CO2 in a photobioreactor by photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U. 001.[2,3]   The other approach takes into consideration the thermodynamic limitation of the reaction and facilitates the reaction equilibrium to maximize the production of hydrogen. Studies were conducted to observe the effect of reduced partial pressure of H2 on the yield as well as production rate of hydrogen.

                          SUSTAINABLE REMEDIATION
              
ABSTRACT :

In recent years, Cleaning up of contaminated land has become an increasingly common activity in many ofthe European countries, as a result of commercial and legislative pressures which have combined toencourage the reuse of so called ‘Brownfield sites’. Consolidation and relocation in the manufacturingindustry has created surplus industrial land. Moreover, financial reporting requirements and tighterenvironmental legislation have encouraged companies to actively remediate contaminated land. Although it is
generally recognized that remediation activity can add significant value to parcel of land, it is not commonlyunderstood that consideration of sustainability in the remediation process can also have a beneficial impact onthe bottom line.   So, our paper briefly describes the social, economical and environmental concerns which play a major role in determining the fate and future of any sustainable method. and our paper also presents the example of the white haven factory of Rhodia which was successfully remediated.
Keywords: Consolidation, Remediation, Sustainability, Relocation.


Sustainability of Hydrogen as an Alternative Fuel

ABSTRACT:

 May be the so called “DOOMS” Day as such told by the Americans Is not too far, its just as simple as due to the on-going technological development in this world thereby eating away all the directly available resources also known as the Fossil Fuels which are much easier to be used compared to the other sources available but these are not going to last as such they are actually appearing they would. So, the need for the alternative sources of energy or alternative fuels has arisen and is promoting the innovations to notify their research in order to put forth their consequence for a better tomorrow. The most abundantly available and feasible source is hydrogen which has already been tested as an alternative for automobile fuel. If this can be readily and constantly be put to use may be the sudden deprival of resources of fuels could be avoided. There are a lot of ways for the production of hydrogen like the steam reforming process, Fermentative Hydrogen Production, Electrolysis of Water etc…. Due to the vast and versatile applications of Hydrogen it sure can be used as a source of fuel in the near future……..
                                                           STEM Cells
                                   The Repair Tool Kit

                                              
ABSTRACT
If a person’s organ is damaged due to some disease, we go for transplantation, complex process, which has a risk of infection or immune rejection .Imagine a Repair Tool that can able to repair the damaged organ and bring backs it’s normal function. Here comes a biological repair tool “Stem cells” .Stem cells are very special cells having the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. Stem cells have two important characteristics that distinguish them from other types of cells. First, they are unspecialized cells that renew themselves for long periods through cell division. These cond is that under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become specialized cells, cells with special functions, such as the beating cells of the heart muscle or the insulin producing cells of the pancreas or skin cells helping skin rejuvenation. By manipulating this ability of Stem cells and using them as Repair Tool show edpositive result and led to further research. In an experiment to reverse a neural disorder, tremors, researchers injected the mice's brains with neuronal stem cells. In this case the stem cells migrated throughout the mice's brains and then figured out what kinds of cell sto turn into and transforming themselves into oligoden drocytes, which started churning out myelin insulation. In 60% of cases, the tremors stopped almost completely.

                      Targeted Engineering of the HumanGenome

ABSTRACT

Custom-designedd Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN)—proteins designed to cut at specific DNA sequences combine the non specific cleavage domain (N)of Fok I restriction endonucleases wiyh zinc fingure proteins(ZFPs).Because the recognition specificites of the ZFPs can be easily manipulated experimentally, ZFNs offer a general way to deliver a targeted site specific double-strand break(DSB)to the genome.They have become powerful tools for enchancing gene targeting-the process of replacing a gene within a genome of cells via homologous recombination (HR)-by several orders of magnitude. ZFN-mediated gene targeting thus confers the molecular biologists with the ability to site- specifically and permanentally alter not only plant and mammalian genome s but olso many other organisms HR via a tatgeted genomic DSB.Site-specific engineering of the genome of plant and mammalian cells so far has been hinderd by the iow frequency of the HR. In ZFN-mediated gene targeting ,this is circumvented by using designer ZFNs to cut at the desired chromosomal locus inside the cells. The DNA break is then patched up using the new investigator –provided genetic information and the cells own repair machinery .The accuracy and high efficiency of the HR process combined with the ability to design ZFNs that target most DNA sequences, makes ZFN technology a powerful research tool site-specific  manipulation of plant and mammalian genomes but also potentially for human therapeutics in the future, in particular for targeted engineering of the human genome of clinically transplantable stem cells as a form of gene therapy.

TARGETED   DRUG   DELIVERY   FOR   BRAIN   TUMOUR

ABSTRACT:
The brain is a delicate organ, and evolution built very efficient ways to protect it. Unfortunately, the same mechanisms that protect it against intrusive chemicals can also frustrate therapeutic interventions. Many existing pharmaceuticals are rendered ineffective in the treatment of cerebral diseases due to our inability to effectively deliver and sustain them within the brain. Drug delivery to specific locations in the brain is a challenging task in the treatment of diseases related to Central Nervous System (CNS) such as brain tumors owing to the blood-brain barrier (BBB).Current treatment being used is delivering Glial-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) drugs at specific locations to CNS, but  due to their big molecular structure they cannot overcome the BBB. A promising solution to this problem is to deliver the required drug into the targeted location by invasive techniques. For example, glial tumors are associated with over-expression of calcium-dependent potassium (KCa) channels, and high grade glioma express specific KCa  channel gene (gBK) splice variants, and mutant epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRvIII).These specific genes are promising targets for molecular targeted treatment in brain tumors.In this review, we briefly discuss the potential molecular targets, and the challenges of targeted brain tumor treatment. This non-invasive strategy is particularly useful as novel molecules and humanized monoclonal antibodies that target receptor. Systemic therapy by oral and parenteral routes is considered along with sustained and controlled release to optimize the CNS action of drugs The role of anti-cancer drug delivery to brain tumors by breaching the blood-brain tumor barrier is also an effective method. Unmet needs for further development in CNS drug delivery technologies are identified according to the important methods of delivery of therapeutic substances to the CNS. Finally suggestions are made for strategies to expand CNS delivery markets. Besides development of new products, these include application of innovative methods of delivery to older drugs to improve their action and extend their patient life.


             Ultrasonic-Activated Micellar Drug Delivery for
                            Cancer Treatment

ABSTRACT

The use of nanoparticles and ultrasound in medicine continues to evolve.Great strides have been made in the areas of producing micelles, nanoemulsions, andsolid nanoparticles that can be used in drug delivery. An effective nanocarrier allows forthe delivery of a high concentration of potent medications to targeted tissue whileminimizing the side effect of the agent to the rest of the body. Polymeric micelles havbeen shown to encapsulate therapeutic agents and maintain their structural integrity atlower concentrations. Ultrasound is currently being used in drug delivery as well as diagnostics, and has many advantages that elevate its importance in drug delivery. Thetechnique isnoninvasive, thus no surgery is needed; the ultrasonic waves can be easilycontrolled by advanced electronic technology so that they can be focused on the desiredtarget volume. Additionally, the physics of ultrasound are widely used and well understood;thus ultrasonic application can be tailored towards a particular drug deliverysystem.


KEYWORDS:
 Micelle; ultrasound; drug delivery; chemotherapy; cancer; surfactant;
Controlled release/delivery

  VSEP Technology

    ABSTRACT:
 
The most mind boggling problem faced currently by the chemical industries, in particular treatment industries, has been unduly with respect to attainment of high range of purity of water being used for numerous purposes. In spite of effective membrane filtration techniques for water treatment, membrane fouling has been one of the major concerns of late. The conventional RO filters when replaced with Vibrated Shear Enhanced Processing (VSEP) were found to be effective. It increases the permeate flux and has an additional advantage of purifying high viscous liquids.
In this paper we are dealing its application in water treatment in particular Industrial feed water treatment. When used with RO systems eliminate the number of pre-treatment steps. Further, it reduces the chemical usage for regeneration, thereby reducing the disposal of spent regenerate and the associated costs by reducing the frequency of ion-exchange regeneration. The major applications using VSEP technique are Filtration for Ethanol Recovery, Treatment of Coolant Wastewater from Automotive Facility, Filtration of Colloidal Silica and many other techniques. Few of its applications are being discussed in our paper.
VSEP reduces considerably, the TDS, TSS and hardness, which hinder the purity.

ZERO EMISSION COAL POWER

ABSTRACT:
                                Over the last decade, carbon dioxide – the end product of fossil fuel combustion – has itself become a concern, mainly because of it’s role in climate change. Unlike the situation for pollutants like Sox, it is not a single emission that causes harm, but rather it is the long term accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere due to myriad anthropogenic sources. Therefore a suitable design is needed such that to collect all emitted combustion products in solid form, thereby eliminating emissions to air.Our paper mainly discusses on a process that produces zero emission, while deriving the coal power. In the process, hydrogen is used to gasify coal exothermically to give a methane rich intermediate, which is reformed using water and CaO, giving calcium carbonate and H2 . H2 formed is split up into two quarters and a half, where the half goes to gasify the next unit of coal, a quarter is cleaned up with a high temperature hydrogen separation membrane to produce pure H2 as a product, where the other quarter is used to generate electricity via a solid oxide fuel cell(SOFC). The inevitable high temperature waste heat produced by the SOFC is used to regenerate CaO by calcining CaCo3 , during which a pure stream of CO2 produced is safely disposed by the mineral sequestration process. The exhaust stream of SOFC consists predominantly steam, free of any air; with a slipstream, that consists of other intial contaminants of coal, which is extracted and condensed. Overall the process is an effectively closed loop with zero emissions to the atmosphere.

ZINC-FINGER PROTEINS FOR RETROVIRAL TREATMENT
                      
     ABSTRACT:
                                               
Virus is an obligatory infective parasite consisting essentially of nucleic acids (either DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat or capsid the proteins are antigenic. The coat plus the nucleic acid core is termed as the nucleocapsid.some viruses have in addition, a lipoprotein envelope, which may contain antigenic viral glycoproteins, as well as host phospholipids acquired when the virus nucleocapsid buds through the nuclear membrane or plasma membrane of the host cell. Certain viruses also contain enzymes that initiate their replication in the host cell. The whole infective parasite is termed as virion. The genome may be double or single stranded. Viruses are ore of three types DNA virus, RNA virus, Retro virus.Infection with HIV results in AIDS. The epidemic overwhelmingly centered replicate without killing the host cell.HIV virus contains enzymes, Integrase, Protease, and Reverse Transcriptase. Reverse transcriptase makes a double stranded DNA copy of viral DNA. Integrase enzyme integrates the viral DNA with the host DNA forming provirus. Protease involves cleaving of the poly peptides into structural proteins and enzymes for the new virion.
S

Zinc-Fingers Inhibitors: The “Zinc-Finger” is a structure found in HIV. Parts of it are identical across almost all retroviruses-meaning that it would be very difficult for HIV to develop resistance to a drug which destroyed the structure are prevented it from working. Many cells also have a Zinc-Finger structure but different from that of retroviruses so any inhibitor would have to be selected.

 A New Adsorbent For Arsenic Removal  From
   Underground  Water

ABSTRACT

Arsenic contamination in groundwater is a serious problem due to its toxicity. Arsenic
levels above permissible limit of 50 ppb in groundwater have been reported from many parts of the world. Millions of people are suffering from ill effects of excess arsenic intake. Chronic arsenic poisoning  is  manifested  by  various  cancerous and  non-cancerous  disorders.  Arsenic occurs in underground water as arsenate, As (V) and arsenite, As (III) forms. The former is less toxic and easily removable. Removal of arsenite from water is possible only after oxidation to arsenate by any of the available treatment technologies, which is not feasible for small water utilities. A variety of technologies such as coagulation-precipitation, lime softening, ion exchange resins, adsorption with activated alumina and reverse osmosis have been used for the removal of arsenic from water but all these technologies suffer from one or the other drawback. Therefore a new adsorbent material has been developed in the laboratory and batch studies were conducted for  both  arsenate  and  arsenite.  The  results  depicted  that  this  adsorbent  is  highly  selective, effective for  removal of both arsenate and  arsenite  forms, works under wide pH range and produces nonleachable residue. It can remove upto 98% of both arsenate and arsenite from water and is about six times more effective than activated alumina.

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